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jHE main purpose of 
[this second book is 
ivobvious from its title. 
]lt's mostly a collec- 
tion of "Records" confirming 
what has already been written, 
and relates almost exclusively 
to years after 1902. As Lord 
Rosebery has said so well, 
"The war period in a man's 
life has its definite limits " ; 
and that period is what 
interests the general reader, 
and for that reason all attempt 
at a biography has been 

In our present distress we 

, Google 

certainly want badly just 
now Nelson's "Light from 
Heaven " ! Nelson had what 
the Mystics describe as his 
"seasons of darkness and 
desertion." His enfeebled body 
and his mind depressed used 
at times to cast a shade on 
his soul, such as we now feel 
as a Nation, but (if I re- 
member right) it is Southey 
who says that the Sunshine 
which succeeded led Nelson 
to believe that it bore with it 
a prophetic glory, and that 
the light that led him on was 
"Light from Heaven." We 
don't see that "Light" as yet. 
But England never succumbs. 

, Google 


Napoleon at St. Helena told us what all Englishmen 
have ever instinctively felt — that we should remain a 
purely Maritime Power ; instead, we became in this 
War a Conscript Nation, sending Armies of Millions 
to the Continent. If we stuck to the Sea, said 
Napoleon, we could dictate to the World ; so we could. 
Napoleon again said to the Captain of the British 
Battleship " Bellerophon " : " Had it not been for 
you En^ish, I should hxvc been Emperor of the 
East, but wherever there was water to float a ship, 
we were sure to find you in the way." (Yes ! we 
had ships only drawing two feet of water with six-inch 
guns, that went up the Tigris and won Bagdad. 
Others, similar, went so many thousand miles up 
the Yangtsze River in China that they sighted the Moun- 
tains of Thibet. Another Bridsh Ship of War so many 
thousand miles up the Amazon River that she sighted 
the Mountains of Peru, and there not being room to 
turn she came back stem first. In none of these cases 
had any War Vessel ever before been seen till these 
British Vessels investigated those waters and astounded 
the inhabitants.) 


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Again, Napoleon praised our Blockades (Les Anglais 
bloquent tris bien) ; but very justly of our Diplomacy 
he thought but ill. Yes, alas I What a Diplomacy 
it has been 1 1 I If our Blockade had been permitted 
by the Diplomats to have been effective, it would 
have finished the War at once. Our Diplomats had 
Bulgaria in their hands and lost her. It was " Too 
Late " a year after to offer her the same terms as 
she had asked the year before. We " kow-towed " 
to the French when they rebuffed our request for 
the English Army to be on the Sea Flank and 
to advance along the Belgian Coast, supported by the 
British Fleet'; and then there would have been no 
German Submarine War. At the very b^inning of 
the War we deceived the German Ambassador in London 
and the German Nation by our vadllatii^ Diplomacy. 
We wrecked the Russian Revolution and turned it into 

I mention these matters to prove the effete, apathetic, 
indecisive, vadllating Conduct of the War — the War 
eventually being won by an effective Blockade. 




Eably Ybaks . 



Thb Bible, and other Reflections 38 

Episodes 50 

Democracy 69 

PuBuc Speeches 79 

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The Essentials of Sea Figutinc S8 

Jonah's Gooed 97 

Naval Problems 127 

Naval Education 156 



Notes on Oil and Oa Engines 189 

The Big Gun 204 

SoHE Predictions 21Z 

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The Baltic Project 2x7 

The Naty in the Wak 225 

Postscript . . 249 

LoBD Fisher's Great Natal Reforms . . . . 351 

Synopsis OP Lord Fisher's Career ..... 259 

Ikdex 271 

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1883. Captain op H.H.S. " Inflexible " Froniispitc* 

King Edward VII. and the Czab, 1909 .... 16 

Two Photographs op King Edward VII. and Sir John 
Fisher on Board H.M.S. " Dreadnought " on her 
First Cruise 33 

Photograph, taken and sent to Sir John Fisher by the 
Empress Harib op Russia, of a Group on Board H.M.S. 
" Standard," 1909 48 

A Group ok Board H.H.S. " Standard," 1909 ... 63 

A Group on Board H.H.S. " Standard," 1909 ... 80 

A Group at Langhah House. Photograph taken and 
SENT to Sir John Fisher by the Empress Harib of 
Russia 97 

Sir John Fisher going on Board the Royal Yacht. . 112 

Sir John Fishbr and Sir Colin Keppel (Captain of the 

Royal Yacht) 129 


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" The DAOKTtESis Three," Portsmouth. 1903 ... 160 

Some Shells for i8-inch Guns 177 

Lord Fisher's Proposed Smp, H.M.S. " Incomparable," 

SHOWN ALONGSIDE H.M.S. " Dreadnought " ... 208 

The StTBUASiNE Monitor M t . . ... 340 

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[HE main purpose of 
[this second book is 
\obvious from its title, 
(it's mostly a collec- 
tion of "Records" confirming 
what has already been written, 
and relates almost exclusively 
to years after 1902. As Lord 
Rosebery has said so well, 
"The war period in a man's 
life has its definite limits " ; 
and that period is what 
interests the general reader, 
and for that reason all attempt 
at a biography has been 

In our present distress we 

, Google 

certainly want badly just 
now Nelson's "Light from 
Heaven " ! Nelson had what 
the Mystics describe as his 
"seasons of darkness and 
desertion." His enfeebled body 
and his mind depressed used 
at times to cast a shade on 
his soul, such as we now feel 
as a Nation, but (if I re- 
member right) it is Southey 
who says that the Sunshine 
which succeeded led Nelson 
to believe that it bore with it 
a prophetic glory, and that 
the light that led him on was 
"Light from Heaven." We 
don't see that "Light" as yet. 
But England never succumbs. 

DiVizedb, Google 


Napoleon at St. Helena told us what all Englishmen 
have ever inBtinctively felt — that we should remain a 
purdy Maritime Power ; instead, we became in this 
War a Conscript Nation, sending Armies of Millions 
to the Continent. If we stuck to the Sea, said 
Napoleon, we could dictate to the World ; so we could. 
Napoleon again said to the Captain of the British 
Battleship " Bellerophon " : " Had it not been for 
you English, I should have been Emperor of the 
East, but wherever there was water to float a ship, 
we were sure to find you in the way." (Yes I we 
had ships only drawing two feet of water with six-inch 
guns, that went up the Tigris and won Bagdad. 
Others, similar, went so many thousand miles up 
the Yangtsze River in China that they sighted the Moun- 
tains of Thibet. Another British Ship of War so many 
thousand miles up the Amazon River that she sighted 
the Mountains of Peru, and there not being room to 
turn she came back stem first. In none of these cases 
had any War Vessel ever before been seen till these 
British Vessels investigated those waters and astounded 
the inhabitants.) 


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Again, N^wleon praised our Blockades (Les Anglais 
bloquent tris bien) ; but very justly of our Diplomacy 
he thought but ill. Yes, alas I What a Diplomacy 
it has been 1 1 1 If our Blockade had been permitted 
by the Diplomats to have been effective, it would 
have finished the War at once. Our Diplomats had 
Bu^aria in their hands and lost her. It was " Too 
IiSte " a year after to offer her the same terms as 
she had asked the year before. We " kow-towed '* 
to the French when they rebuffed our request for 
die English Army to be on the Sea Flank and 
to advance along the Belgian Coast, supported by the 
British Fleet'; and then there would have been no 
German Submarine War. At the very b^inning of 
die War we deceived the German Ambassador in London 
and the German Nation by our vacillating Diplomacy. 
We wrecked the Russian Revolution and turned it into 

I mention these matters to prove the effete, apathetic, 
indedsive, vacillating Conduct of the War— die War 
eventually being won by an effective Blockade. 

.ig'^TTby Google 


Early Yeass x 

FtntTHBK Memoubs of King Edwaud and Otrbrs . 34 

The BiBU, and otheb Reflechons 38 

Episodes 50 




PvBuc Speeches 79 


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The Essentials of Sea Figuting 88 

Jonah's Gourd 97 

Naval Problems 127 

Naval Education 156 

Submarines 173 

Notes on Oil and Oil Engines 189 

The Big Gun 204 

Some Predictions zii 

, Google 


Tbb Baltic Project 217 

The Navy in the Was 223 

PosTscKiPT . . 249 

LoBD Fishek's Gseat Navai Refobhs . . . . 25X 

Synopsis of Lou> Fisebr's Career 259 

Index 271 

, Google 

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1882. Captain op H.M.S. " Ihpixxiblb " Frontispieu 

King Edward VII. and the Czar, 1909 .... 16 

Two Photockaphs of King Edward VII. and Sir John 
Fisher on Board H.M.S. "Dreadnought" on her 
First Crdisb 33 

Photograph, taken and sent to Sir John Fisher by thb 
Empress Marie of Russia, of a Groop on Board H.M.S. 
" Standard," 1909 48 

A Group on Board H.M.S. " Standard," 1909 ... 65 

A Group on Board H.M.S. " Standard," 1909 ... 80 

A Group at Lakghah House. Photograph taken and 
sent to Sir John Fisher by the Ekpress Marie of 
Russia 97 

Sir John Fisher going on Board the Royal Yacht. . 112 

Sir John Fisher and Sir Coun Keppel (Captain of the 

Royal Yacht) 129 


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fc. j: vuytisat Ttams." Pdrtsmootb, iqo^ 
- iff I ■f TUB ZS-DKB Gtnis .... 

^^ .'-swwf ?KrrosEO Ship. H.M.S. " Ikcompasable." 
.«4ik» .;^Mi£u>e H.](.S. " Dreadnooght " . .208 

1^ _-ii MoKiTOt Ml.. ... 240 

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Op all the curious fables I've ever come across I quite 
think the idea that my mother was a Cingslese Princess of 
exalted rank is the oddest I One can't see the foundation 
of it I 

" The baseless fabric of a vision 1 " 

My godfather, Major Thurlow (of the 90th Foot), was the 
" best man " at my mother's wedding, and very full of 
her beauty then — she was very young — ^possibly it was 
the " Beauti du diable 1 " She had just emerged from 
the City of London, where she ^ras bom and had spent 
her life 1 One grandfather had been an officer under 
Nelson at Trafalgar, and the other a Lord Mayor ! 
He was Boydell, the very celebrated engraver. He left 
his fortune to my grandmother, but an alien speculator 
(a scoundrel) robbed her of it. My mother's father 
had, I believe, some vineyards in Portugal, of which 
the wine pleased William the Fourth, who, I was told, 
came to his counting house at 149, New Bond Street, 
to taste it t Next door Emma, Lady Hamilton, used to 
clean the door steps I She was housemaid there. 

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I don't think the Fishers at all enjoyed my fziher (who 
was a Captain in the 78th Highlanders) marrying into the 
Lambes t The " City " was abhorred in those days, and 
the Fishers thought of the tombs of the Fishers in 
Packington Church, Warwickshire, going back to the 
daik ages I I, myself, possess the portrait of Sir Clement 
Fisher, who married Jane Lane, who assisted Charles the 
Second to escape by disguising his Majesty as her groom 
and riding behind him on a pillion to Bristol. 

The Fishers' Baronetcy lapsed, as my ancestor after 
Sir Clement Fisher's death wouldn't pay ,£500 in the 
nature of fees, I believe. I don't think he had the money — 
so my uncle told me. This uncle, by name John Fisher, 
was over 60 years a fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, 
and told me the story of an ancestor who built a wing of 
Balliol at Oxford, and they — the College Authorities — 
asked him whether they might place some inscription in 
his honour on the building I He replied : 

" Fisher — non amplius," 
(but someone else told me it was : — 

" Verbum non amplius Fisher ! ") 

My uncle explained that his ancestor only meant just 
to put his name, and that's all. 

But the College Authorities put it all on : 

" Fisher I Not another blesiied word is wanted." 

One of my ancestors changed his motto and took these 

words (I have them on a watch I) :— 

" UM voluntas — ibi piscatur." 
(We fish where we like). 

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A Poacher, I suppose I or was there a '* douUe 
entendre " ? 

I'm told in the old days you could change your motto 
and your crest as often as you Uked, but not your coat of 
arms I 

A succession of ancestors went and dwelt at Bodmin, in 
Cornwall — all clergymen down to my grandfather, who 
was Rector of Wavendon, in Bucks, where is a tablet to 
his brother, who was killed close to the Duke of Welling- 
ton at Waterloo, and who ordered his watch to be sent to 
my uncle's relatives with the dent of the bullet that killed 
him, and that watch I now have. 

My uncle was telling this story at a tabU tPhSte at 
Brussels a great many years afterwards, and said he had 
been unable to identify the spot, when an old white- 
haired gentleman at the table said he had helped to bury 
him, and next day he took him to the place. 

I remember a Dean glancing at me in a Sermon on the 
Apostles, when he said the first four were all Fishers t 

On the death of Sir Robert Fisher of Packington in 
1739, a number of family portraits were transferred 
apparently to the Rev. John Fisher of Bodmin, bom 
January 27th, 1708. The three principal portraits are a 
previous Sir Robert Fisher, his son Sir Clement Fisher, 
who died 1683, and Jane Lane, his wife. Another por* 
trait is a second Sir Clement Fisher, son of the above and 
of Jane Lane. This Sir Clement Fisher died 1709, and 
was succeeded by his only brother. Sir Robert Fisher, 
who died A.D. 1739, one year before his niece, Mary 
Fisher, wife of L«rd Aylesford. All these portraits were 
3 B 2 

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transmitted in direct inheritance to Sir John Fidier. The 
four generations of Reverend John Fishers of Bodmin, 
commencing with John Fisher bom 1708, were none of 
them in a position to incur the heavy expenses involved 
for their assumption of the Baronetcy, They were 
descended from a brother of the Sir Robert Fisher who 
lived before the year A.D. 1600. 

I was bom in 1841, the same year as King Edward VII. 
There was never such a healthy couple as my father and 
mother. They never married for money — they married 
for love. They married very young, and I was their 
first child. All the physical advantages were in my favour, 
so I consider I was absolutely right, when I was nine 
months old, in refusing to be weaned. 

" She walks in beauty like the night 
Of cloudless dimes and starry skies ; 

And all that's best of dark and bright 
Meets in her aspect and her eyes : 

Thus mellow'd to that tender light 
Which heaven to gaudy day denies." 

These lines were written by Lord Byron of my god- 
mother, Lady Wilmot Horton, of Catton Hall, Burton- 
on-Trent. She was still a very beautiful old lady at 73 
years of age when she died. 

One of her great friends was Admiral Sir William 
Parker (the last of Nelson's Captains), and he, at her 
request, gave me his nomination for entering the Navy. 
He had two to give away on becoming Port Admiral at 
Plymouth. He gave the other to Lord Nelson's own 
niece, and she also filled in my name, so I was doubly 
nominated by the last of Nelson's Captains, and my first 

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ship was the " Victory " and it was my last ! In the 
"Victory" log-book it is entered, "July 12th, 1854, 
joined Mr. John Arbuthnot Fisher," and it is also en- 
tered that Sir John Fisher hauled down his flag on October 
2ist, 1904, on becoming First Sea Lord. 

A friend of mine (a yellow Admiral) was taken 
prisoner in the old French War when he was a Midship- 
man ten years old, and was locked up in the fortress of 
Verdun. He so amused me in my young days by telling 
me that he gave his parole not to escape t as if it mattered 
vkat he did when he was only four foot nothing t And he 
did this, he told me, in order to learn French ; and when 
he had learned French, to talk it fluently, he then can- 
celled his parole and was locked up again and then he 
escaped ; alone he did it by filing through the iron bars of 
his prison window (the old historic method), and wended 
his way to England. I consider this instance a striking 
testimony to the inestimable benefit of sending little boys 
to sea when they are young ! What splendid Nelsonic 
qualities were developed 1 

But it was quite conunon in those days of my old yellow 
Admiral for boys to go to sea even as young as seven 
years old. My present host's grandfather went to sea aa 
a Midshipman at seven years old I Afterwards he was 
Lord Nelson's Signal Midshipman, his name was Hamil- 
ton, and his grandson was Midshipman with me in two 
ahips. He is now the 13th Duke of Hamilton I It is 
interesting as a Nelsonic legend that the wife of the 6th 
Duke of Hamilton (she was one of the beautiful Miss 
Gunnings; she was the wife of two Dukes and the 

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mother of four) peculiarly befriended Enuna, Lady 
Hamilton, and recognised her, as so few did then (and, 
alas 1 still fewer now, as one of the noblest women who 
ever lived— one mass of sympathy she was ! 

The stories of what boys went through then at sea were 
appalling. Z have a corroboration in lovely letters from a 
little Midshipman who was in the great blockade of Brest 
by Admiral Comwallis in 1802. This little boy was after- 
wards killed just after Trafalgar. He describes seeing 
the body of Nelson on board ship on its way to 
Portsmouth. This little Midshipman was only 
eleven years old when he was killed I This is how he 
describes the Midshipman's food : " We live on beef 
which has been ten or eleven years in a cask, and on biscuit 
which makes your throat cold in eating it owing to the 
ma^ots, which are very cold when you eat them I like 
calves-foot jelly or blomonge — being very fat indeed I " 
(It makes one shudder I ) He goes on again : " We drink 
water the colour of the bark of a pear tree with plenty 
of little maggots and weevils in it, and wine, which is 
exactly like bullock's blood and sawdust mixed together " ; 
and he adds in his letter to his mother : " I hope I shall not 
learn to swear, and by God*s assistance I hope I shall not 1 " 
He tried to save the Captain of his Top (who had been 
at the " Weather earing ") from falling from aloft. This 
is his description : " The hands were hurried up to reef 
topsails, and my station is in the foretop. When the men 
began to lay in from the yards (after reefing the topsails) 
one of them laid hold of a slack rope, which gave way, and 
he fell out of the top on deck and was dashed to pieces 

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and very near carried me out of the top along with him as 
I was attempting to lay hold of him to save htm 111** 
Our little friend the Midshipman was eight years old 
at this time I What a picture I this little boy trying to 
save the sailor huge and hairy ! His description to his 
mother of Comwallis's Fleet is interesting : " We have 
on board Admiral Graves, who came in his ten-oared 
barge, and as soon as he put his foot on shipboard the 
drums and fifes b^an to play, and the Marines and all 
presented their arms. We are all prepared for action, all 
our guns being loaded with double shot. We have a 
fine sight, which is the Grand Channel Fleet, which con- 
sists of 95 sail of the line, each from 1 20 down to 64 guns." 
That is the Midshipman of the olden day, and one often 
has misgivings that the modem system of sending boys to 
sea much older is a bad one, when such magnificent 
results were produced by the old method, more especially 
as in the former days the Captain had a more paternal 
charge of those little boys coming on board one by one, as 
compared with the present crowd sent in batches of big 
hulking giants, some of them. However, there is more 
to learn now than formerly, and possibly it's impossible 
(all the entrance examination I had to pass was to write 
out the Lord's Prayer, do a rule of three sum and 
drink a glass of sherry I) ; but one would like to 
give it a trial of sending boys to sea at nine years old. 
Our little hero tried to save the life of the Captain 
of his Top when he was only eight years old I Still, the 
Osborne system of Naval education has its great 
merits ; but it has been a grievous blow to it, depart- 

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ing from the original conception of entry at eleven years 
of age. 

However, the lines of the modem Midshipman are laid 
in pleasant places ; they get good food and a good night's 
rest. Late as I came to sea in 1854, Z had to keep either 
the First or Middle Watch every night and was always 
hungry I Devilled Pork rind was a luxury, and a Spanish 
Onion with a Sardine in the Middle Watch was Paradise I 

In the first ship I was in we not only carried our fresh 
water in casks, but we had some rare old Ship's Biscuit 
supplied in what were known as "bread-bags." These 
bread-bags were not preservative ; they were creative. 
A favourite amusonent was to put a bit of this biscuit on 
the table and see how soon all of it would walk away. 
In fzct one midshipman could gamble away his " tot " of 
rum with another midshipman by pitting one bit of 
biscuit against another. Anyhow, whenever you took a 
bit of biscuit to eat it you always tapped it edgeways on 
the table to let the " grown-ups " get away. 

The Water was nearly as bad as the Biscuit. It was 
turgid— it was smelly — it was animally. I remember so 
well, in the Russian War (1854-5), being sent with the 
Watering Party to the Island of Nargen to get fresh water, 
as we were running short of it in this old Sailing Line 
of Battleship I was in (there was no Distilling Apparatus 
in those days). My youthful astonishment was how on 
earth the Lieutenant in charge of the Watering Party 
discovered the Water, lliere wasn't a lake and there 
wasn't a stream, but he went and dug a hole and there' 
was the water ! However, it may be that he carried out 



the same delightful plan as my delicious old Admiral in 
Chimi. This Admiral's survey of the China Seas is one 
of the most celebrated on record. He told me himself 
that this is how he did it. He used to anchor in some 
convenient place every few miles right up the Coast of 
China. He had a Chinese Interpreter on board. He sent 
this man to every Fishing Village and offered a dollar 
for every rock and shoal. No rock or shoal has ever 
been discovered since my beloved Admiral finished his 
survey. Perhaps the Lieutenant of the Watering Party 
gave Roubles I 

I must mention here an instance of the Simple Genius of 
the Chinese. A sunken ship, that had defied all European 
efforts to raise her, was bought by a Chinaman for a mere 
song. He went and biredall the Chinamen from'an adjacent 
Sponge Fishery and bought up several Bamboo Plant- 
ations where the bamboos were growing like grass. The 
way they catch sponges is this — The Chinaman has no 
diving dress — he holds his nose — a leaden weight attached 
to his feet takes him down to where the sponges are — 
he picks the sponges — evades the weight — and rises. 
They pull up the weight with a bit of string afterwards. 
The Chinese genius I speak of sent the men down with 
bamboos, and they stuck them into the sunk ship, 
and soon " up she came ** ; and the Chinaman said : 

" Ship hab Bamboo — 
No hab Water ! " 

It's a pity there's no bamboo dodge for Sunk Reput- 

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An uncle of mine had a snuff box made out of the 
Salt Beef, and it was french-poUshed I That was his beef 
— and ours was nearly as hard. 

There were many brutalities when I first entered the 
Navy — now mercifully no more. For instance, the day 
I joined as a little boy I saw eight men flowed — and I 
fainted at the sight. 

Not long ago I was sitting at luncheon next to a dis- 
tinguished author, who told me I was '* a very interestii^ 
person I " and wanted to know what my idea of life was, 
I replied that what made a life was not its mature years 
but the early portions when the seed was sown and the 
blossom so often blasted by the firost of imrecognition. 
It was then that the fruit of after years was pnmed to 
something near the mark of success. " Your great career 
was when you were young," said a dear friend to me the 
other day. I entered the Navy penniless, friendless and 
forlorn. While my mess-mates were having jam> I had 
to go without. While their stomachs were fidl, mine was 
often empty. I have always had to fight like hell, and 
fighting like hell has made me what I am. Hunger and 
thirst are the way to Heaven ! 

When I joined the Navy, in 1854, the last of Nelson's 
Captains was the Admiral at Plymouth. The chief object 
in those days seemed to be, not to keep your vessel 
efficient for fighting, but to keep the deck as white as 
snow and all the ropes taut. We Midsh^men were 
allowed only a basin of water to wash in, and the basin 
was inside one's sea-chest ; and if anyone spilt a drop 
of water on the deck he was made to holy-stone it himsdf . 

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And that reminds me, as I once told Lord Esher, when I 
was a young First Lieutenant, the First Sea Lord told me 
that he never washed when he went to sea, and he didn't 
see " why the Devil the Midshipmen should want to 
wash now I " I remember one Captain named Lcth- 
bridge who had a passion for spotless decks ; and it used 
to put him in a good temper for the whole day if he could 
discover a " swab-tail," or fragment of the swabs with 
which the deck was cleaned, left about. One day he 
h^>pened to catch sight of a Midshipman carefully 
arrai^ing a few swab-tails on deck in order to gratify 
" old Leather-breeches* " lust for discoverii^ them ! And 
aa for taut ropes, many of my readers will remember the 
old story of the lady (on the North American station) 
who congratulated the Captain of a " family *' ship 
(officered by a set of foob) because " the ropes hung in 
such beautiful festoons I " 

There was a fiddler to every ship, and when the anchor 
was being weighed, he used to sit on the capstan and play, 
so as to keep the men in step and in good heart. And on 
Sundays, everyone being in full dress, epaulettes and all, 
the fiddler walked round the decks playing in front of the 
Captain. I must add this happened in a Brig com- 
manded by Captain Miller. 

After the " Victory," my next ship was the " Calcutta," 
and I joined it under circumstances vAach Mr. A. G. 
Gardiner has narrated thus : — 

" One day hx back in the fifties of last century a sailing 
ship came round from Portsmouth into Plymouth Sound, 
where ^e fleet lay. Among the passengers was a Uttle 

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hipman fresh from his apprenticeship in the 

* \^ctory.* He scrambled aboard the Admiral's ship, 
and with the assurance of thirteen marched up to a 
splendid figure in blue and gold, and said, handing him a 
letter : ' Here, my man, give this to the Admiral. The 
man in blue and gold smiled, took the letter, and opened 
it. ' Are you the Admiral ? ' said the boy. ' Yes, I'm 
the Admiral.' He read the letter, and pattmg the boy on 
the head, said : ' You must stay and have dinner with 
me.' ' I think,* said the boy, ' I should like to be getting 
on to my ship.' He spoke as though the British Navy had 
fallen to his charge. The Admiral laughed, and took 
him down to dinner. That night the boy slept aboard the 
' Calcutta,' a vessel of 84 guns, given to the British Navy 
by an Indian merchant at a cost of ^£84,000. It was the 
day of small things and of sailmg-ships. The era 
of the ironclad and the ' Dreadnought ' had not 

I think I must give the first place to one of the first of 
my Captains who was the seventh son of the last Vice- 
Chancellor of England, Sir Lancelot Shadwell. The 
Vice-Chancellor used to bathe in the Thames with his 
seven sons every morning. My Shadwell was about the 
greatest Saint on earth. The sailors called him, somewhat 
profanely. " Our Heavenly Father." He was once heard 
to say, " Damn," and the whole ship was upset. When, 
as Midshipmen, we punished one of our mess-mates for 
abstracting his cheese, he was extremely angry with us, and 
asked us all what right we had to interfere with his cheese. 
He always had the Midshipmen to hreakhst with him, and 
when we were seasick he gave us champagne and ginger- 
bread nuts. As he went in mortal fear of his own steward, 
who bossed him utterly, he would say : " I think the 

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aroma has rather gone out of this champ^ne. Give it to 
the young gentlemen." The steward would reply : 
" Now you know very well, Sir, the aroma ain't gone out of 
this 'ere champagne " ; but all the same we got it.' He 
always slept in a hammock, and I remember he kept his 
socks in the head clews ready to put on in case of a squall 
calling him suddenly on deck. I learned Arom him nearly 
all that I know. He taught me how to predict eclipses 
and occuhations, and I suppose I took more lunar ol»er- 
vations than any Midshipman ever did before. 

Shadwell's appearance on going into a fight I must 
describe. We went up a Chinese river to capture a pirate 
stronghold. Presently the pirates opened fire from a 
banana plantation on the river bank. We nipped 
ashore from the boats to the banana plantation. I 
remember I was armed to the teeth, tike a Greek 
brigand, all swords and pistols, and was weighed 
down with my weapons. We took shelter in the 
banana plantation, but our Captain stood on the river 
bank. I shall never forget it. He was dressed in a pair 
of white trousers, yellow waistcoat and a blue tail coat with 
brass buttons and a tall white hat with a gold stripe up 
the side of it, and he was waving a white umbrella to 
encourage ua to come out of the bananas and go for the 
enemy. He had no weapon of any sort. So (I think 
rather against our inclinations, as the gingall bullets were 
flying about pretty thick) we all had to come out and go for 
the Chinese. 

Once the Chinese guns were firing at us, and as the shell 
whizzed over the boat we all ducked. " Lay on your oars, 

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my men," said Shadwell ; and proceeded to explain veiy 
deliberately how ducking delayed the progress of the 
boat — apparently unaware that his lecture had stopped 
its progress altogether I 

His sole desire for famt was to do good, and he re- 
quested tor himself when he died that he should be 
buried under an apple tree, so that people might say : 
" God bless old Shadwell I " He never fl<^;ged a man in 
his life. When my Captain was severely wounded, 
I being with him as his Aide-de-Camp (we landed 
1,100 strong, and 463 were killed or wounded), he 
asked me when being sent home what he could do for 
me. I asked him to give me a set of studs with his motto 
on them : " Loyal au mort," and I have worn them daily 
for over sixty years. When this conversation took place, 
the Admiral (afterwards Sir James Hope, K.C.B.) came to 
say good-bye to him, and he asked my Captain what he 
could do for him. Ho turned his suffering body towards 
me and said to the Admiral : " Take care of that boy." 
And so he did. 

Admiral Hope was a great man, very stem and stately, 
the sort of man everybody was afraid of. His nickname 
was composed of the three ships he had commanded : 
" Terrible. . . Firebrand. . . Majestic." He turned to 
me and said : " Go down in my boat " ; and everyone 
in the Fleet saw this Midshipman going into the Admiral's 
boat. He took me with him to the Flagship ; and I got 
on very well with him because I wrote a very big hand 
which he could read without spectacles. 

He promoted me to Lieutenant at the earliest possible 

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date, and sent me on various services, which greatly 
helped me. 

My first chance came when Admiral Hope sent me to 
c<nnmand a vessel in Chinese waters on special service. 
His motto was " Favouritism is the secret of efficiency," 
and though I was only nineteen he put me over the heads 
of many older men because he believed that I should do 
what I was told to do, and carry out the orders of the 
Admiral r^iardless of consequences. And so I did, 
although I made all sorts of mistakes and nearly lost the 
ship. When I came back everyone seemed to expect that 
I should be tried by Court-Martial ; but the Admiral 
only cared that I had done what he wanted done ; and 
then he gave me command of another vessel. 

The Captain of the ship I came home in was another 
sea wonder, by name Oliver Jones. He was Satanic ; 
yet I equally liked him, for, like Satan, he could disguise 
himself as an angel ; and I believe I was the only officer 
he did not put under arrest. For some reason I got on 
with him, and he made me the Navigating Officer of the 
ship. He told me when I first came on board that he 
thought he had committed every crime under the sun 
except murder. I think be committed that crime while 
I was with him. He was a most fascinating man. He 
had such a charm, he was most accomplished, he was a 
splendid rider, a wonderful linguist, an expert navigator 
and a thorough seaman. He had the best cook, and the 
best wines ever afloat in the Navy, and was hospitable to 
an extreme. Almost daily he had a lot of us to dinner, 
but after diimer came hell 1 We dined with him in tail 

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coat and qMutettes. After dinner he had sail drill, or 
preparing the ship for battle, and persecution then did 
its utmost. 

Once, while I was serving with him^ we were frozen 
in out of sight of land in the Gulf of Pechili in the North 
of China. And there were only Ship's provisions, 
salt beef, salt pork, pea soup, flour, and raisins. Otiver 
Jones was our Captain, or we wouldn't have been frozen 
in. The Authorities told him to get out of that Gulf 
and that's why he stayed in. I never knew a man who 
so hated Authority. I forget how many degrees below 
zero the thermometer was, and it was only by an un- 
precedented thaw that we ever got out. And with this 
intense cold he would often begin at four o'clock in the 
morning to prepare for battle, and hand up every shot 
in the ship on to the Upper E>eck, then he'd strike I^wer 
Yards and Topmasts (which was rather a heavy business), 
and finish up with holystoning the Decks, which opera- 
tion he requested all the Officers to honour with their 
presence. And when we went to Sea we weren't quite 
sure where we would go to (I remember hearing a 
Marine Officer say that we'd got off the Chart altogether). 
Till that date I had never known what a delicacy a sea- 
gull was. We used to get inside an empty barrel on the 
ice to shoot them, and nothing was lost of them. The 
Doctor skinned them to make waistcoats of the skins — 
the insides were put on the ice to bait other seagulls, 
and a rare type of onion we had (that made your eyes 
water when you got within half a mile of them) made 
into stuffing got rid of the fishy taste. 



On the way home he landed me on a desert island 
to make a survey. He was sparse in his praises ; 
but he wrote of me : " As a sailor, an officer, a Navigator 
and a gentleman, I cannot praise him too highly." Con- 
fronted with this uncommon eicpression of praise from 
Oliver Jones, the examiners never asked me a question. 
They gave me on the spot a first-class certificate. 

This Captain Oliver Jones raised a raiment of cavalry 
for the Indian Mutiny and was its Colonel, and Sir Hope 
Grant, the great Cavalry General in the Indian Mutiny, 
said he had never met the equal of Oliver Jones as a cavalry 
leader. He broke his neck out himtii^. 

When I was sent to the Hythe School of Musketry as a 
young Lieutenant, I found myself in a small Squad of 
Officers, my right hand man was a General and my left 
hand man a full Colonel. The Colonel spent his time 
drawing pictures of the General. (The Colonel was really 
a wonderful Artist.) The General was splendid. He 
was a magnificent-looking man with a voice like a bull 
and his sole object was Mutiny I He hated General 
Hay, who was in Command of the Hythe School of 
Musketry. He hated him with a contemptuous disdain, 
In those days we commenced firing at the target only a 
few hundred yards off. The General never hit the 
target once [ The Colonel made a beautiful picture of 
him addressing the Parade and General Hay : " Gentle- 
men I my unalterable conviction is that the bayonet is 
the true weapon of the British Soldier I " The beauty 
of the situation was that the General had been sent to 
Hythe to qualify as Inspector-General of Musketry. 
17 c 

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After some weeks of careful drill (without Bring a shot) 
we had to snap caps (that was to get our nerves all 
right, I suppose t) ; the Sergeant Instructor walked 
along the front of the Squad and counted ten copper 
caps into each outstretched hand. At that critical 
moment General Hay appeared on the Parade. This 
gave the General his chance t With his bull-like voice 
he asked General Hay if it was believable after these 
weeks of incessant application that we were going (each 
of us) to be entrusted with ten copper caps I When we 
were examined vivd voce we each had to stand up to 
answer a question (like the little boys at a Sunday 
School). The General was asked to explain the lock 
of the latest type of British Rifle. He got up and stated 
that as he was neither Maskelyne and Cooke nor the 
Davenport Brothers (who were the great conjurers of 
that time) he couldn't do it. Certainly we had some 
appalling questions. One that I had was, " What do 
you pour the water into the barrel of the rifle with when 
you are cleaning it 7 " Both my answers were wrong. 
I said, " With a tin pannikin or the palm of the hand." 
The right answer was " tvith care " I Another question 
in the written examination was, " What occiured about 
this time ? " Only one paragraph in the text-book had 
those words in it " About this time there occurred, etc." I 
All the same I had a lovely time there ; the British Army 
was very kind to me and I loved it. The beat shot in 
the British Army at that date was a confirmed dnmkard 
who trembled like a leaf, but when he got his eye on 
the target he was a bit of marble and " bull's eyes " 

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every tune 1 So, as the Scripture aaya, never judge by 
appearance. Keble, who wrote the " Christian Year," 
was exceedingly ugly, but when he spoke Heaven shone 
through ; so I was told by one who knew him. 

It's going rather backwards now to speak of the time 
when I was a Midshipman of the " Jolly Boat " in 1854, 
in an old Sailing Line of Battleship of eighty-four guns. 
I think I must have told of sailing into Harbour every 
morning to get the Ship's Company's beef (gale or no 
gale) from Spithead or Plymouth Sound or the Note. 
We never went into harbour in those days, and it was 
very unpleasant work. I always fdt there was a chance 
of being drowned. Once at the Nore in mid-winter all 
our cables parted in a gale and we ran into the Harbour 
and anchored with our hemp cable (our sole remaining 
joy) ; it seemed as big round as my small body was then, 
and it lay coiled like a huge gigantic serpent just before 
the Cockpit. Nelson must have looked at a similar 
hemp cable as he died in that comer of the Cockpit 
which was close to it. All Battleships were exactly 
alike. You could go ashore then for forty years and 
come on board again quite up to date. On our Quarter 
Deck were brass Cannonades that had fired at the French 
Fleet at Trafalgar. No one but the Master knew about 
Navigation. I remember when the Master was sick and 
the second Master was away and the Master's Assistant 
had only just entered the Navy, we didn't go to Sea 
till the Master got out of bed again. There was a 
wonderfully amart Commander in one of the other 
Battleships who had the utmost contempt for Science ; 
19 c 2 

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he used to say that he didn't believe in the new-fangled 
sighting of the guns, *' Your Tangent Sights and Dis- 
parts I " What he found to be practically the best 
procedure was a cold veal pie and a bottle of nun to 
the first man that hit the target. We have these same 
" dears " with us now, but they are disguised in a clean 
white shirt and white kid gloves, but as for believing in 
Engineers — " Sack the Lot " ! 

It is very curious that we have no men now of great 
conceptions who stand out above their fellows in any 
profession, not even the Bishops, which reminds me of 
a super-excellent story I've been told in a letter. My 
correspondent met by appointment three Bishops for 
an expected attack. Before they got to the business 
of the meeting, he said, " Could their Lordships 
kindly tell him in the case of consecrated ground 
how deep the consecration went, as he specially 
wanted to know this for important business purposes." 
They wrangled and he got off his " mauvais quart 
d'heure." My correspondent explained to me that his 
old Aimt (a relation of Mr. Disraeli) said to him when 
he was young " Alfred, if you are going to have a row 
with anyone — ahot^syou hegin ! " 

I come to another episode of comparatively early years. 

Yesterday I heard from a gentleman whom I had not 
seen for thirty-eight years, and he reminded me of a 
visit to me when I was Captain of the " Inflexible." I 
was regarded by the Admiral Superintendent of the 
Docked as the Incarnation of Revolution. (What 
upset him most was 1 had asked for more water-closets 

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and got them.) This particular episode I'm going to 
relate was that I wanted the incandescent light. Lord 
Kelvin had taken me to dine with the President of the 
Royal Society, where for the first time his dining table 
was lighted with six incandescent lamps, provided by 
his friend Mr. Swan of Newcastle, the Inventor in this 
Country of the Incandescent light, as Mr. Edison was 
in America (it was precisely like the discovery of the 
Planet Neptune when Adams and Leverrier ran neck 
and neck in England and France). After this dinner 
I wrote to Mr. Swan to get these lamps for the " In- 
flexible," and he sent down the friend who wrote me 
the letter I received yesterday (Mr. Henry Edmunds) 
and we had an exhibition to convert this old fossil of 
an Admiral Superintendent. 
Here I'll put in Mr. Henry Edmunds's own words : — 

At last we got our lamps to glow satisfiactorily ; and 
at that moment the Admiral was announced. Captain 
Fisher had warned me that I must be careful how I 
answered any questions, for the Admiral was of the stem 
old school, and prejudiced against all new-fangled notions. 
The Admiral appeared resplendent in gold lace, and 
accompanied by such a bevy of ladies that I was stronglv 
reminded of the character in " H.M.S. Pinafore 
" with his sisters, and his cousins, and his aunts." The 
Admiral immediately asked if I had seen the " Inflexible." 
I replied that I had. " Have vou seen the powder 
magazine ? " " Yes ! I have been in it." What 
would happen to one of these little glass bubbles in the 
event of a oroadside ? " I did not Uiink it would affect 
them. " How do you know ? You've never been in a 
ship during a broadside I " I saw Captain Fisher's eye 
fixed upon me ; and a sailor was dispatched for some 

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gun-cotton. Evidently everything had been ready pre- 
pared, for he quickly returned with a small tea tray about 
two feet long, upon which was a layer ofgun-cotton, 
powdered over with black gun-powder. The Admiral 
asked if I was prepared to break one of the lamps over 
the tray. I replied that I could do so quite safely, for 
the glowing lamp would be cooled down by the time 
it fell amongst the gun-cotton. I took a cold chisel, 
smashed a lamp, and let it fall. The Company saw the 
light extinguished, and a few pieces of glass fall on the 
tray. There was no flash, and the gun-powder and 
gun-cotton remained as before. There was a short 
pause, while the Admiral gazed on the tray. Then he 
turned, and said to Lord Fisher, *' We'll have this light 
on the ' Inflexible.' " 

And that was the introduction of the incandescent 
light into the British Navy. 

Talking about water-closets, I remember so well long 
ago that one of the joys on board a Man-of-War on 
Christmas Day was having what vras called a " Free 
Tank," that is to say, you could go and get as much 
fresh water as ever you liked, all other days you were 
restricted, so much for drinking and so much for washing. 
The other Christmas Joy was " Both sides of the ' Head ' 
open " 1 What that meant was that right in the Bows 
or Head of the Ship were situated all the Bluejackets' 
closets, and on Christmas Day all could be used 1 " all 
were free." Usually only half were allowed to be open 
at a time. It was a quaint custom, and I always thought 
outrageous. " Nous avons changi tout cela." 

When I was out in the West Indies a French Frigate 
came into the Harbour with Yellow Fever on board. 
My Admiral asked the Captain of the English Man-of* 

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War that happened to be there what kindness he had 
shown the French Frigate on arrival ? He said he liad 
sent them the keys of the Cemetery. This Captain 
always took his own champagne with him and put it 
under his chair. I took a passage with him once in 
his Ship, he had a Chart hanging up in his cabin like 
one of those recording barometers, which showed 
exactly how his wine was getting on. AVhen he came 
to call on the Admiral at his house on shore, he always 
brought a small btmdle with him, and after his Official 
visit he'd go behind a bush in the garden and change 
into plain clothes I All the same, this is the stuff that 
heroes are made of. Heroes are always quaint. 

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King Edward paid a visit to Admiralty House, 
Portsmouth, 19th February to 22nd February, 1904, 
while I was Commander-in-Chief there ; and after he 
had left I received the following letter from Lord 

KnoUys : — 

Buckingham Palace, 

22Hd February, 1904. 

My Dear Admiral, 

I am desired by the King to write and thank you 
again for ^our hospitality. 

His Majesty also desires me to express his great 
appreciation of all of the arrangements, which were 
excellent, and they reflect the greatest credit both on 
you and on those who worked under your orders. 

I am very glad the visit was such a great success and 
went off so well. The King was evidently extremely 
pleased with and interested in everything. 

Yours sincerely, 


I can say that I never more enjoyed such a visit. 
The only thing was that I wasn't Master in my own house, 
the King arranged who should come to dinner and 

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himself arranged how everyone should sit at table; I 
never had a look in. Not only this, but he also had the 
Cook up in the momii^. She was absolutely the best 
cook I've ever known. She was cheap at £ioo a year. 
She was a remarkably lovely yoimg woman. She died 
suddenly walking across a hay field. The King gave 
her some decoration, I can't remember what it was. 
Some little time after the King had left — one night I 
said to the butler at dinner, " This soup was never made 
by Mrs. Baker ; is she ill ? " The butler replied, " No, 
Sir John, Mrs. Baker isn't ill, she has been invited by 
His Majesty the King to stay at Buckingham Palace." 
And that was the first I had heard of it. Mrs. Baker 
had two magnificent kitchenmaids of her own choosir^ 
and she thought she wouldn't be missed. I had an 
interview with Mrs. Baker on her return from her 
Royal Visit, and she told me that the King had said to 
her one morning before he left Admiralty Hoiise, 
Portsmouth, that he thought she would enjoy seeing 
how a Great State Dinner was managed, and told her 
be would ask her to stay at Buckingham Palace or 
Windsor Castle to see one I Which is only one more 
exemplification of what I said of King Edward in my 
first book, that he had an astounding aptitude of appealing 
to the hearts of both High and Low. 

My friends tell me I have done wrong in omitting 

countless other little episodes of his delightful nature. 

" One touch of nature makes the whole world kin I " 

This is a sweet little episode that occurred at 

Sandringham. The King was there alone and Lord 


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Redesdale and myself were his only guests. The King 
was very fond of Redesdale, and rightly so. He was a 
most delightful man. He and I were sitting in the 
garden near dinner time, the King came up and said 
it was time to dress and he went up in the lift, leaving 
Redesdale tn the garden. Redesdale had a letter to 
write and rushed up to his, bedroom to write the letter 
behind a screen there was between him and the door ; 
the door opened and in came the King, thinkii^ he had 
left Redesdale in the garden, and went to the wash- 
hand-stand and felt the hot water-can to see if the water 
was hot and went out again. Perhaps his water had 
been cold, but anyhow he came to see if his guest's 
was all right. 

On another occasion I went down to Sandringham with 
a great party, I think it was for one of Blessed Queen 
Aleicandra's birthdays (I hope Her Majesty will forgive 
me for telling a lovely story presently about herself). 
As I was zero in this grand party, I slimk off to my room 
to write an important letter ; then I took my coat off, 
got out my keys, unlocked my portmanteau and began 
unpacking. I had a boot in each hand ; I heard somebody 
fumbling with the door handle and thinking it was the 
Footman whom Hawkins had allocated to me, I said 
" Come in, don't go humbugging with that door handle I " 
and in walked King Edward, with a cigar about a yard 
loi^ in his mouth. He said (I with a boot in each hand I) 
" What on earth are you doing ? " " Unpacking, Sir." 
" Where's your servant ? " " Haven't got one. Sir." 
" Where is he ? " " Never had one, Sir ; couldn't afford 


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it." "Put those boots down; sit in that ann chair." 
And he went and sat in the other on the other side of 
the fire. I thought to myself, " This is a nun state of 
affairs 1 Here's the King of England sitting in my 
bedroom on one side of the fire and I'm in my shirt 
sleeves sitting in an armchair on the other side I " 

" Well," His Majesty said, " why didn't you come and 
say, * How do you do ' when you arrived ? " I said, " I 
had a letter to write, and with so many great people 
you were receiving I thought I had better come to my 
room." Then he went on with a long conversation, 
until it was only about a quarter of an hour from dinner 
time, and I hadn't unpacked I So I said to the King, 
" Sir, you-U be ai^ry if I'm late for dinner, and no doubt 
your Majesty has two or three gentlemen to dress you, 
but I have no one." And he gave me a sweet smile 
and went off. 

All the same, he could be extremely unpleasant ; and 
one night I had to send a telegram for a special messenger 
to bring down some confounded Ribbon and Stars, 
which His Majesty expected me to wear. I'd foi^tten 
the beastly things (I'm exactly like a Christmas Tree 
when I'm dressed up). One night when I got the 
King's Nurse to dress me up, she put the Ribbon of 
somethii^ over the wrong shoulder, and the King 
harangued me as if I'd robbed a chiux:h. I didn't like 
to say it was his Nurse's fault. Some of these Ribbons 
you put over one shoulder and some of them you have 
to put over the other ; it's awfully puzzling. But the 
King was an Angel all the same, only he wasn't always 


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one. Personally I don't like perfect angels, one doesn't 
feel quite comfortable with them. One of Cecil Rhodes's 
secretaries wrote his Life, and left out all his defects « 
it was a most unreal picture. The Good stands out all 
the more strikingly if there is a deep shadow. I think 
it's called the Rembrandt Effect. Besides, it's unnatural 
for a man not to have a Shadow, and the thought just 
occurs to me how beautiful it is — " The Shadow of 
Death " I There couldn't be the Shadow unless there 
was a bright light 1 The Bright Light is Immortality 1 
Which reminds me that yesterday I read Dean Inge's 
address at the Church Congress the day before on 
Immortality. If I had anything to do with it, I'd make 
him Archbishop of Canterbury. I don't know htm, 
but I go to hear him preach whenever I can. 

The Story about Queen Alexandra is this. My 
beloved friend Several, one of King Edvrard's treasured 
friends, asked me to lunch on Queen Alexandra's sixtieth 
birthday. After lunch all the people said something 
nice to Queen Alexandra, and it came to my turn, I 
said to Her Majesty, " Have you seen that halfpenny 
newspaper about your Majesty's birthday ? " She said 
she hadn't, what was it ? I said these were the words : — 

" The Queen is sixty to-day ! 
May she live till she looks it ! " 

Her Majesty said " Get me a copy of it I " (Such a 
thing didn't exist !) About three weeks afterwards (Her 
Majesty has probably forgotten all about it now, but she 
hadn't then) she said, " Where's that halfpenny news- 



paper P " I was staggered for a moment, but recovered 
myself and said " Sold out, Ma'am ; couldn't get a 
copy I " (I think my second lie was better than my 
first 1) But the lovely part of the story yet remains. A 
year afterwards she sent me a lovely postcard which I 
much treasure now. It was a picture of a little girl 
bowling a hoop, and Her Majesty's own head stuck on, 
and underneath she had written : — 

" May she live till she looks it I " 

I treasure the remembrances of all her kindnesses to 
me as well as that of her dear Sister, the Dowager 
Empress of Russia. The trees they both planted at 
Kilverstone are both flourishing ; but strange to say the 
tree King Edward planted began to fade away and died 
in May, 1910, when he died — though it had flourished 
luxuriantly up till then. Its roots remain untouched — 
and a lai^ mass of " Forget-me-nots " flourishes 
gloriously over them. 

For very many consecutive years after 1886 I went to 
Marienbad in Bohemia (eight hundred miles from 
London and two thousand feet above the sea and one 
mass of delicious pine woods) to take the waters there. 
It's an ideal spot. The whole place is owned by a 
Colony of Monks, settled in a Monastery (close by) 
called Tepl, who very wisely have resisted all efforts 
to cut down the pine woods so as to put up more 

I had a most serious illness after the Bombardment of 

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one. Personally I don't liki 
feel quite comfortable with ; 
secretaries wrote his Lift-', 
it was a most unreal pic* 
the more strikingly if t- 
it's called the Rembrnr. ' 
for a man not to ha\ 
occurs to me how ' 
Death " I There c 
was a bright light 
Which reminds v 
address at the ^' 
Immortality. If ^ 
him ArchbishoT 
but I go to hea- ' 
The Stor\' 

beloved frien^ 
friends, askct' 
birthday. J^- 
nice to 
said to I'" 
she hadt! ' 



iicr. and great 

haJ entrusted 

.. : Captains in the 

. .irter the Bombard- 

: the Rebel Egyptian 

miles off, and I had 

: :-. Alexandria. For the 

^ .; organised an Armoured 

:> common as Aeroplanes. 

.■notion as the Tanks did. 

.^&iy in the Pall Mall Gazette. 

i jnd, as I relate in my 

.:'.precedented kindness from 

^1. M< to stay at Osborne) and from 

>; Lord of the Admiralty), who 

...vuicment in the Navy. I always 

' " j^e ilso to his Private Secretary at 

J, jir Lewis Beaumont). For three 

^leuce of Malarial Fever, and tried 

,jo;« and many remedies all in vain. 

wUiwi ind was absolutely cured in three 

.££ .-dapaed till two years ago, when I was 

^^ jae has ever discovered what was the 

^^ : Thanks be to God — I believe I am 

j^ I ever was in all my whole life, and 

' .kaist with joy and enjoy champagne when 

^"^": ^meods. kindly note I). 

luicttb^ I met some very celebrated men, and 

•c Srtpg so sniall I became great friends with 

^2 vga ace restricted to a Promenade only a 


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few hundred yards long for two hours morning and even- 
ii^, while you are drinking your water, you can't help 
knowii^ each other quite well. How I wish I could 
remember all the splendid stories those men told me t 

CampbcU-Bannennan, Russell (afterwards Chief Jus- 
tice), Hawkins (afterwards Lord Brampton), the first 
Lord Bumham, Labouchere (of Truth), Yates (of the 
World), Lord Shand (a Scottish Judge), General Gallifet 
(fiunous in the Franco-German War), Riunbold (Am- 
bassador at Vienna), those were some of the original 
members. Also there were two Bevans (both deUghtful) 
— to distinguish them apart, they called the " Bar- 
clay Perkins " Bevan " poor " Bevan, as he was supposed 
to have only two millions sterling, while the other one 
was supposed to have half a dozen I (That was the story.) 
I almost think I knew Campbell-Bannerman the best. 
He was very delightful to talk to. I have no Politics. 
But in after years I did so admire his giving Freedom to 
the Boers. Had he lived, he would have done the same 
to Ireland without any doubt whatever. Fancy now 
60,000 British soldiers quelling veiled Insurrection and 
a Military Dictator as Lord Lieutenant and Ireland 
never so prosperous I I have never been more moved 
than in listening to John Redmond's brother, just back 
from the War in his Soldier's uniform, making the most 
eloquent and touching appeal for the Freedom of Ireland t 
It came to noihitig. I expect Lord Lorebum (who was 
Campbell-Bannerman's bosom friend) will agree with 
me that had Campbell-Bannerman only known what a 
literally overwhelming majority he was going to obtain 

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at the forthcoming Election, he would have formed a 
very different Govenunent from what he did, and I 
don't believe we should have had the War. King 
Edward liked him very much. They had a bond in 
their love of all things French. I don't believe any 
Prime Minister was ever so loved by his followers as 
was Campbell -Bannerman. 

Sir Charles Russell, afterwards Chief Justice, was 
equally delightful. We were so amused one day (when 
he first came to Marienbad) by the Head Waiter whis- 
pering to us that he was a cardsharper I The Head Waiter 
told us he had seen him take a pack of cards out of his 
pocket, look at them carefully, and then put them back I 
Which reminds me of a lovely incident in my own 
career. I had asked the Roman Catholic Archbishop to 
dinner ; he was a great Saint — ^we played cards after 
dinner. We sat down to play — (one of my guests waa a 
wonderful conjurer). " Hullo I " I said, " Where are 
the cards gone to ? " The conjurer said, " It doesn't 
matter : the Archbishop will let us have the pack of 
cards he always carries about in his pocket " I The 
Holy Man furtively put his hand in his pocket (thinking 
my friend was only joking I) and dash it t there they 
were I I never saw such a look in a man's face I (He 
thought Satan was crawling about somewhere.) 

Lord Bumham was ever my great Friend, he was also 
a splendid man. I should like to publish his letters. 
I have spoken of Labouchere elsewhere. As Yates, 
of the Worldy Labouchere, and Lord Bumham (thoie 
three) walked up and down the Promenade tc^ether 


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(Lord Bumham being stout), Russell called them " The 
World, the Flesh, and the Devil." I don't know if it 
was original wit, but it was to me. 

Old Gallifet also was splendid company ; he had a 
silver plate over part of his stomach and wounds all 
over him. I heard weird stories of how he shot down 
the Communists. 

Sir Henry Hawkins I dined with at some L^;al 
Assemblage, and as we walked up the Hall arm in arm 
all the Law Students struck up a lovely song I'd never 
heard before : " Mrs. *enry 'awkins," which he greatly 
enjoyed. On one occasion he told me that when he 
was still a Barrister, he came late into Court and asked 
urtiat was the name of the Barrister associated with him 
in the Case ? The Usher or someone told him it was 
Mr. Swan and he had just gone out of the Court. (I 
suppose he ought to have waited for Sir Henry.) Any- 
how Sir Henry observed that he didn't like him " taking 
liberties with his Leda." I expect the Usher, not being 
up in Lempri^'s Dictionary, didn't see the joke I 

Dear Shand, who was very small of stature, was 
known as the " Epitome of all that was good in Man." 
He reeked with good stories and never told them twice. 
Queen Victoria fell in love with him at first sight (not- 
withstanding that she preferred big men) and had him 
made a Lord. She asked after his wife as " Lady 
Shand " ; and, being a Scottish Law Lord, he repUed 
that " Mrs. Shand was quite well." There are all 
sorts of ways of becomii^ a Lord. 

Rumbold knocked the man down who asked him 

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for his ticket I He wasn't going to have an Ambassador 
treated like that (as if he had travelled without a ticket 1) 
As the Czechs hate the Germans, I look forward to 
going back to my beloved Marienbad once more every 
year. The celebrated Queen of Bohemia was the 
daughter of an English King ; her name was Elizabeth. 
The English Ambassador to the Doge of Venice, Sir 
Henry Wootton, wrote some imperishable lines in her 
praise and accordingly I worshipped at Wootton's 
grave in Venice. The lines in his Poem that I love 

" You Commoa People of the Sides, 
What an You, when the Moon sbail rise ? " 

In dictating the Chapter on " Some Personalities," that 
appears in my " Memories," I certainly should not 
have overlooked my very good friend Masterton- 
Smith (Sir J. E. Masterton-Smith, K.C.B.). I can 
only say here (as he knows quite well) that never 
was he more appreciated by anyone in his life than 
by me. Numberless times he was simply invaluable, 
and had his advice been always taken, events would 
have been so different in May 1915 1 

I have related in " Memories "■ how malignancy went 
to the extent not only of declaring that I had sold my 
country to the Germans (so beautihilly draied by Sir 
Julian Corbett), but also that I had formed " Syndicates" 
and " Rings " for my own financial advantage, using 
my official knowledge and power to further my nefirioua 
schemes for making myself quickly rich I I have denied 
this by the Income Tax Returns — and I have also explained 

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I am still poor — ^very poor — because one*third of my 
pension goes in income tax and the remaining two-thirds 
is really only one-third because of depreciation of the 
pound sterling and appreciation of food prices t 

But let that pass. However, I've been told I ought to 
mention I had another very brilliant opportunity of 
becoming a millionaire in A.D. 1910, but declined. 
And also it has been requested of me to state the fact 
that never in all my life have I belonged to any company 
of any sort beyond possessing shares, or had any place 
of profit outside the Navy. That is sufficiently definite, 
I think, to d n my enemies and satisfy my friends. 

My finances have always been at a low ebb (even 
when a Commander-in-Chief), as I went on the principle 
of " whatever you do, do it with all your might," and 
there is nothing less conducive to " the fighting efficient^ 
of a Fleet and its instant readiness for war " than a 
Stingy Admiral I The applications for subscriptions 
which were rained upon me I countered with this in- 
estimable memorandum in reply, invented by my 
sympathetic Secretary : — " The Admiral deeply regrets 
being unable to comply with your request, and he 
deplores the reason — but his Expenditiu'e is tn excess of 
his Receipts." I always got sympathy in return, more 
specially as the Local Applicants were largely responsible 
for the excess of expenditure. 

At an early period of my career I certainly did manage 

on very little, and it is wonderful what a lot you can 

get for your money if you think it over. I got breakfast 

for tenpence, lunch for a shilling and dinner for eighteen 

35 Da 

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pence and barley water for nothing and a bed for three 
and sixpence (but my bedroom had not a Southern aspect) . 
The man I hired a bedroom from was like a Father 
to me, and I have never had such a polish on my shoes. 
(I remember saying to a German Boots, pointing to my 
badly-cleaned shoes, " Spiegel I " — looking-glass ; he 
took away the shoes and brought them back shining 
like a dollar. Hardly anyone will see the joke 1} But 
what I am most proud of is that, financial necessity once 
forcing me to go to Marienbad quite alone, I did a three 
weeks' cure there, including the railway fare and every 
expense, for twenty-five pounds. I don*t believe any 
Econonust has ever beaten this. I preserve to this day 
the details of every day's expenditure, which I kept in 
a little pocket-book, and read it all over only a couple of 
days ago, without any wish for past days. 

I recall with delight first meeting my beloved old 
friend. Sir Henry Lucy ; he had with him Sir F. C. Gould, 
who never did a better service to his country than when 
he portrayed me as an able seaman asking the Con- 
scriptionists (in the person of Lord Roberts) whether 
there was no Britbh Navy. The cartoon was repro- 
duced in my " Memories " (p. 48). In my speech at 
the Lord Mayor's Banquet in 1907 (see Chapter VI 
of this volume) I had spoken of Sir Henry Lucy as 
"gulled by some Midshipman Easy of the Channel 
Fleet " (Sir Henry had been for a cruise in the Fleet), 
who stuffed him up that the German Army embarking 
in the German Fleet was going to invade En^and ! 
And in the flippant manner that seems so to amu^ people, 

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I obeerved that Sir Henry might as well talk of embarking 
St. Paul's Cathedral on board a penny steamer as of 
embarking the German Anny in the German Fleet I 
He and Gould came up to me at a stance on board the 
" Dreadnought," and had a cup of tea as if I had been a 
Iamb I 

On the occasion of that same speech, a Bishop looked 
very sternly at me, because in my speech, to show 
how if you keep on talking about war and always looking 
at it and thinking of it you bring it on, I instanced Eve, 
who kept on looking at the apple and at last she plucked 
it ; and in the innocence of my heart I observed that had 
she not done so we should not have been now bothered 
with clothes. When I said this in my speech I was 
following the advice of one of the Sherifiia of the City of 
London, sitting next me at dinner, who told me to fix 
my eyes, while I was speaking, on the comer of the 
Indies' Gallery, as then everyone in the Guildhall could 
hear what I said. And such a lovely girl was in that 
comer, I never took my eyes off her, all the time, and that 
brought Eve jnto^my mind ! 

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I HAVE just been listening to another very eloquent 
sennon from Dr. Hugh Black, whom I mention else- 
where in this book (see Chapter V). Nearly all these 
Presbyterians are eloquent, because they don't write 
their sermons. 

The one slip our eloquent friend made in hb sermon 
was in saying that the a.d. i6i i edition of the Bible (the 
Authorised Version) was a better version of the Bible 
than the Great Bible of a.d. 1539, which according to the 
front page is stated to be as follows : — 

" The byble in English that is to say the content of all 
the Holy Scripture both of the old and new testament 
truly translated after the verity of the Hebrew and Greek 
texts by the diligent study of diverse excellent learned men 
expert in the aforesaid tongues. 

" Printed by Richard Grafton and Edward Whitchurch. 
Cum privilegio ad imprimendum solum. 

It is true, as the preacher said, that the 161 1 edition, 
the Authorised Version, is more the literal translation of 

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the two, but thoM " diverse occellent learned men '* 
translated according to the spirit and not the letter of the 
original ; and our dear brother (the preacher) this morning 
in his address had to acknowledge that in the text he had 
chosen from the 27th Psalm and the last verse thereof, 
the pith and marrow which he rightly seized on — being the 
words " Wait on the Lord " — ^were more beautifully 
rendered in the great Bible from which (the Lord be 
thanked I) the English Prayer Book takes its Psalms, and 
which renders the original Hebrew not in the literal words, 
" Wait on the Lord," but " Tarry thou the Lord's leisure," 
and goes on also in far better words than the Authorised 
Version with the rest of the verse : " Be strong and He 
shall comfort thine heart." 

When we remonstrated with the Rev. Hugh Black after 
his sermon, he again gainsaid, and increased his heinous- 
neas by telling us that the word '* Comfort," which doesn't 
appear in the 1611 version, was in its ancient signification 
a synonym for " Fortitude " ; and the delightful outcome 
of it is that that is really the one and only proper prayer — 
to ask for Fortitude or Endta-ance. You have no right to 
pray for rain for your turnips, when it will ruin somebody 
else's wheat. You have no right to ask the Almighty — 
in fact, He can't do it — ^to make two and two into five. 
The only prayer to pray is for Endurance, or Fortitude. 
The most saintly man I know, daily ended his prayers 
with the words of that wonderful hymn : 

" Renew my will from day to day. 
Blend it with thine, and take away 
All that DOW makes it hard,to say, done." 


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It must not be assumed that I am a Saint in any way in 
making these remarks, but only a finger-post pointing the 
way. The finger-post doesn't go to Heaven itself, y^ 
it shows the way. All I want to do is to stick up for those 
holy men who were not hide-bound with a dictionary, 
and gave tis the spirit of the Holy Word and not the 
Dictionary meaning. 

Here I feel constrained to mention a far more beautiful 
illustration of the value of those pious men of old. 

In Brother Black's 1611 version, the most famous of the 
Saviour's words : " Come tmto me all ye that labour and 
are heavy laden and I will give you rest," is, in the 1539 
version, " I will refresh you I " There is no reft this side 
of Heaven. Job (iii, 17) explains Heaven as " Where 
the wicked cease from troubling and where the weary be 
at rest." The fact is — the central point is reached by 
the Saviour when He exemplifies the Day of Perfection 
by saying : " In that day ye shall ask me nothing." 

I have been told by a great scientist that for the tide 
to move a pebble on the beach a millionth of an inch 
further would necessitate an alteration in the whole 
Creation. And then we go and pray for rain, or to beat 
our enemies I 

.A^;ain, I say — ^The only thing to pray for is Endurance. 

Some people in sore straits try to strike bargains with 
God, if only He will keep them safe or relieve them in the 
present necessity. It's a good story of the soldier who, 
with all the shells exploding round him was heard to 
pray : " O llfcrd, if Youll only get me out of this d — d 
mess I will be good, I will be good I " 



I am reminded of what I call the " Pith and Marrow " 
which the pious men put at the head of every chapter of 
the Bible, and which, alas I has been expunged in 
the literary exactitudes of the Revised Version. Re- 
gard Chapter xxvi, for instance, of Proverbs — ^how 
it is all summed up by those " diverse excellent 
learned men." They wrote at the top of the chapter 
" Observations about Fools." Matthew xxii : the Saviour 
" Poteth the Pharisees." Isaiah xxi : " The tet time." 
Isaiah xxvi! (so true and pithy of the Chapter 1) : 
" Chastisements differ from Judgments " ; and in 
Mark xv : " The Clamour of the Common People " — 
descriptive of what's in the chapter. All these headings, 
in my opinion, as regards those ancient translators, are 
for them a " Crown of Glory and a Diadem of Beauty " ; 
and I have a feeling that, when they finished their 
wondrous studies, it was with them as Solomon said, 
" The desire accomplished is sweet to the Soul." 

Dr. GnffiBURG 

March 27th, 19x8. 

Dbar Friend, 

When I was at Bath I read in the local paper a 
beautiful letter aptlv alluding to the Mount Fiesole of 
Bath and quoting what has been termed that mysterious 
verse of David's : 

" I will lift up mine eyes unto the bills ." 

Well I the other day a great friend of that wonderful 
Hebrew scholar, Dr. Ginsburg — he died long since at 
Capri — told me that Ginsburg had said to him that all 
the Revisers and Translators had missed a peculiar 


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Hebraism which quite alters the signification of this 
opening verse of the izist Psahn : It should read : 

" Shalt I lift up mine eyes to those hills 7 DOTH my hdp 
come from thence ? " 
And this is the explanation : 

Those hills alluded to were the hills in which were 
the Groves planted in honour of the idols towa^ which 
Israel had strayed. So in the second verse the inspired 
tongue says ; 

" No I My help cometh from the Lord I He nlio hath made 
Heaven and Earth I (not these idolb)." 

I have had an admiration for Ginsburg ever since he 
shut up the two Atheists in the Athenaeum Club, Huxley 
and Herbert Spencer, who were reviling Holy Writ in 
Ginsburg's presence and flouting him. So he asked the 
two of them to produce anything anywhere in literattire 
comparable to the 23rd Psalm as translated by Wycltf, 
Tyndale, and Coverdale. He gave them a week to 
examine, and at the end of it they confessed that they 
could not. 

One of them (I could not find out which it was) wrote : 

" I won't argue about nor admit the Inspiration claimed, 
but I say this — that those saintly men whom Cromwell 
formed as the company to produce the Great Bible of 
'539 ^^^ inspired, for never nas the spirit of the original 
Hebrew been more beautifully transformed from the 
original harshness into such spuitual wealth." 

Those are not the exact words, I have not got them by 
me, but that was the sense. 

The English language in A.D. 1530 was at its very 
maximum. Hence the beauW of the rsalms which come 
from the Great Bible as produced by that holy company 
of pious men, who one writer says : " Did not wish their 
names to be ever known." I send you the title page. 
Yours, etc., 

(Signed) Fisher. 



I enclosed with this letter the ht>nt page of the first 
edition of the Great Bible, a.d. 1539, often known as 
Cranmer's Bible, but Archbishop Cranmer had nothing 
whatever to do with it except writing a prefiice to it ; 
it was solely due to Cromwell, Secretary of State to Henry 
VIII., who cut off Cromwell's head in July, 1 540. Cranmer 
wrote a preface for the edition after April, 1540. 
Cranmer was burnt at the stake in Mary's reign. 
Tyndale was strangled and burnt, Coverdale, Bishop of 
Exeter, died of himger. Coverdale headed the company 
that produced the Great Bible, and Tyndale's translation 
was taken as the basis. (So those who had to do with the 
Bible had a rough time of it I) 

John Wyclif, in A J). 1380, began the translation of 
the Bible into English. This was before the age of 
printing, so it was in manuscript. Before he died, 
in A.D. 1384, he had the joy of seeing the Bible 
in the hands of his coimtrymen in their own 

WycliTs translation was quaint and homely, and so 
idiomatic as to have become out of date when, more than 
one hundred years afterwards, John Tyndale, walking 
over the fields in Wiltshire, determined so to translate 
the Bible into English " that a boy that driveth the 
plough should know more of the Scriptures than the 
Pope," and Tyndale gloriously succeeded I But for 
doing so, the Papists, under orders from the Pope of 
Rome, half strangled him and then burnt him at the 
stake. Like St. Paul, he was shipwrecked 1 (Just as he 
had finished the Book of Jonah, which is curious, but 

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there was no whale handy, and so he was cast ashore in 
Holland, nearly dead I) 

Our present Bible, of a.d. i6ii, is akoost word for 
word the Bible of Tyndale, of round a.d. 1530, but in a J>. 
15341 Miles Coverdale, Bishop of Exeter, was authorised 
by Archbishop Cranmer and Thomas Cromwell (who 
was Secretary of State to Henry VHI.) to publish his fresh 
translation, and he certainly beautified in many places 
Tyndale's original ! 

In 1539, " Diverse excellent learned men expert in 
the ' foresaid tongues ' " (Hebrew and Greek), under 
Cromwell's orders made a true translation of the whole 
Bible, which was issued in 1539-40 in four editions, and 
remained supreme till a.d. 1568, when the Bishops 
tried to improve it, and made a heavenly mess of it ! And 
then the present Authorised Version, issued in a.d. 
161 1, became the Bible of the Land, and still holds its 
own against the recent pedantic Revised Version of 
AJ>. 1884. No one likes it. It is literal, but it is not 
spiritual I 

In the opinion of Great and Holy men, Cranmer't 
Bible (as it is called), or " the Great Bible "—the Bible 
of 1539 to 1568 — ^holds the field for beauty of its English 
and its emotional rendering of the Holy Spirit I 

Alas I we don't know their names ; we only know of 
them as " Diverse excellent learned men ( " It is said 
they did not wish to go down to Fame 1 

" It is the greatest achievement in letters I The Beauty 
of the translation of these unknown men excels (far 
excels) the real and the so-called originals I All nations 

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and tongues of Christendom have come to admit reluc- 
tantly that no other version of the Book in the English or 
any other tongue offers so noble a setting for the Divine 
Message. Read the Prayer Book Psalms I They are 
from this noble Version — Ei^lish at its zenith I The 
Ei^fUsh of the Great Bible is even more stately, sublime, 
and pure than the English of Shakespeare and Elizabeth." 


" Ye men of Galilee I Why stand ye gazing up into 
Heaven ? " (Acts, Chapter i., verse ii.) 

The moral of this one great central episode of the 
whole Christian faith (which, if a man don't believe 
with his utmost heart he is as a beast that perisheth, 
80 Saint Paul teaches in I. Corinthians, Chapter xv.), 
the moral of it is that however intense at any 
moment of our lives may be the immediate tension that 
is straining our mental fibre to the limit, yet we are to 
" get on 1 " and not stand stock still " gazing up into 
Heaven ! " Inaction must be no part of our life, and we 
must " get on " with our journey as the Apostles did — 
" to our own City of Jerusalem ! " 

It is ctu-ious that Thursday (Ascension Day) was not 
made the Christian Sabbath. No scientific agnostic 
could possibly explain the Ascension by any such theories 
as those that try to get over the fact of the Resurrection 
by cataleptic happenings or an inconceivable trance 1 
The agnostic can't explain away that He was seen by 
the Apostles to be carried up into Heaven when in the 

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act of lifting up His hands upon them to bless them 
" and a cloud received Him out of their sight I " 

Vide the Collect for the Sunday after Ascension Day I 


The prophet Zechariah says in Chapter xiv., verse 7 : 

" At evening time 
It shaU be light I " 

And I conclude that in the last stage of life, as pointed 

out so very decisively by Dr. Weir Mitchell (that great 

American]^ " the brain becomes its best," and so we 

rearrange our hearts and minds to the great advantage 

of our own Heaven and the avoidance of Hell to others I 

" Resentment " I find to fade away, and it merges into 

the feeling of Commiseration 1 ('* Poor idiots I " one 

says instead of " D — ^n 'em ! ") But I can't arrive as yet 

at St. Paul, who deliberately writes that he's quite ready 

to go to Hell so as to let his enemy go to Heaven I You've 

got really to be a real Christian to say that ! I've not 

the least doubt, however, that John Wesley, Bishop 

Jeremy Taylor and Robertson of Brighton felt it surely 1 

Isn't it odd that those three great saints (fit to be numbered 

" with these three men, Noah, Daniel and Job," 

Ezekiel, Chapter xiv., verse 14) each of them should have 

a " nagging " wife ! 

Their Home was Hell I 

And I've searched in vain for any one of the three 
saying a word to the detriment of the other sex 1 They 
might alt liave been Suffragettes I (St. Paul does indeed 

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say that he preferred being single I But Peter was 
married I) 

But this " Resentment " section hinges entirely on 
" Charity *' as defined and exemplified by Mr. Robertson, 
of Brighton, in one of the best of hia wonderful Trinity 
Chapel Sermons. 

Dean Inqb 

I heard the Dean of St. Paul's (Dr. Inge) preach in 
Westminster Abbey on the 17th Chapter of St. Matthew, 
vene 19 : " Then came the disciples to Jesus apart, and 
•aid, ' Why could not we cast him out P ' " 

The sermon was really splendiferous 1 

The Saviour had just cast out a devil that had been 
too much for the diadples, and He told them their inability 
to do so was due to their want of Faith, and added : 
" Howbeit this kind goeth not out but by prayer." The 
Dean explained to us that some ascetic annotator 
400 years afterwards had shoved in at the end of these 
two additional words — ■" and fasting." That, of course, 
was meant by the Dean as " one in the eye " for those 
who fast like the Pharisees and for a pretence make long 
prayers I Then the Dean was just too lovely as to 
" Prayer I " He said he was so sick of people praying 
for victory in the great War 1 And speaking genoally 
he was utterly nek of people praying for what they 
wanted I (as if that was Prayer I) No I the Dean 
divinely said, " Prayer was the exaltation of the Spirit 
of a Man to dwell with God and say in the Saviour's 

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words, * Not my will but Thine be done.' " " Get right 
thus with God," said the Dean, " and then go and make 
Guns and Munitions with the utmost fury. That (said 
the Dean) was the way to get Victory, and not by silly 
vain petitions as if you were asking your Mamma for a 
bit of barley sugar." (I don't mean to say the Dean used 
these exact words !) Then he said an interesting thing 
that " this event of the disciples ignonuniously foiling to 
cast out the devil " happened to these chief of His apostles 
just after their coming down from the Mount of Trans- 
figuration, ^ere they had been immensely uplifted by 
the Heavenly Vision of the Saviour talking with Moses 
and Elijah. The Dean said " that it was really a curious 
fact of large experience that when you were thus lifted 
up in a Heavenly Spirit it was a sure precursor of a fierce 
temptation by the Devil I " These highly-favoured 
disciples, after such a communion with God, thought that 
they themselves, by themselves, could do anythii^ t 
Pride had a fall I They could not cast out that devil I 
They trusted in themselves and did not give God the 
praise 1 And so it was that Moses didn't go over Jordan, 
for he struck the rock and said, " How now, ye rebels t " 
(111 show you who I am 1) 

The Dean also observed that it was the Drains that 
had to be put right when there was an Epidemic of 
Typhoid Fever I " Prayer " wasn't the Antidote ( 

The holy man Saint Francis summed up all religion 
and the Christian life in his famous line : 

" How we are in the sight of God I — That is the only 
thing that matters 1 " 


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It fortuned this morning that I read Joseph's interview 
with his Brethren just after the death of their Father 
Jacob. They, having done their best to murder Joseph 
quite naturally thought that he would now be even with 
them, so they told a lie. Th^ said that Jacob their 
Father bad very kindly left word with them that he hoped 
Joseph would be very nice with his brethren after he died. 
Jacob said no such thing. Jacob knew his Joseph. 
But it gave Joseph a magnificent opportunity for reading 
one of Mr. Robertson's, of Brighton, Sermons — ^he said 
to them, " Am I in the place of God ? " Meaning 
thereby that no bread and water that he might put them 
on, and no torturing thumbscrews, would in any way 
approach the unquenchable fire and the undying worm 
that the Almighty so righteously reserves for the black- 
guards of this life. Which reminds me of the best 
Sermon I ever heard by the present Dean of Salisbury, 
Dr. P^e-Roberts. He said : " There is no Bankruptcy 
Act in Heaven. No los. in the £i there. Every moral, 
debt has got to be paid in full," and consequently Page- 
Roberts, though an extremely broad-minded man, was 
the same as the extreme Calvinist of the imspeakable 
Hell and the Roman Catholic's Purgatory. How curious 
it is how extremes do meet I 

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I. — Mr. Gladstone's Final Resignation. 

I WAS Controller of the Navy when Lord Spencer waa 
First Lord of the Admiralty and Sir Frederck Richards 
was First Sea Lord. Mr. Gladstone, then Prime Minis- 
ter, was at the end of his career. I have never read 
Morley's " Life of Gladstone," but I understand that the 
incident I am about to relate is stated to have been the 
cause of Mr. Gladstone resigning — and for the last time. 
I was the particular Superintending Lord at the Board 
of Admiralty, who, as Controller of the Navy, was 
specially responsible for the state and condition of the 
Navy ; and it was my province, when new vessels were 
required, to replace those getting obsolete or worn out. 
Sir Frederick Richards and myself were on the very 
greatest terms of intimacy. He had a stubborn will, 
an unerring judgment, and an astounding disregard of all 
arguments. When anyone, seeking a compromise with 
him, offered him an alternative, he always took the alterna- 
tive as well as the original proposal, and asked for both. 
Once bit, twice shy ; no one ever offered him an alterna- 
tive a second time. 

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However, he had one great incapacity. No one could 
write a more admirable and concise minute ; but he was 
as dumb as Moses. So I became his Aaron. The mo- 
ment arrived when that magnificent old patriot, Lord 
Spencer, had to choose between fidelity to his life-long 
friend and leader, Mr. Gladstone, and his faithfulness to 
his country. Sir Frederick Richards, the First Sea Lord, 
had convinced him that a certain programme of ship- 
building was vitally and urgently necessary. Mr. Glad- 
stone would not have it. Sir Frederick Richards and 
myself, in quite a nice way, not quite point-blank, 
intimated that the Sea Lords would resign. (My bread 
and cheese was at stake, but I did it 1) Lord Spencer 
threw in his lot with us, and conveyed the gentle likelihood 
to Mr. Gladstone ; whereupon Sir William Harcourt 
and Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman were alternately 
turned on to the three of us (Lord Spencer, Sir F. 
Richards and myself) sitting round a table in Lord 
Spencer's private room. I loved Sir William Harcourt ; 
he was what might be called " a genial rufBan," as opposed 
to Sir Michael Hicks-Beach, who, when he was Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer, was a perfect beast, without 
a single redeeming feature that I ever found out. Sir 
William Hafcourt always started the conversazione by 
insulting Lord Spencer (quite in a friendly way) ; then 
he would say to Sir Frederick Richards, " I always 
thought that one Ei^lishman was equal to three French- 
men, and according to this table of ships required, which 
has been presented to the Prime Minister, it takes three 
Ei^lishmen to manage one Frenchman." Old Richards 

5X E 3 

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would grow livid with anger ; he wanted to say, ** It's 
a danmed lie I " but he couldn't get the proper words 

He had an ungovernable temper. I heard him once 
say to one of the principal Officers in his ship : " Here ; 
don't you look sulky at me, I won't have it I " There 
was a famous one-legged cabman at Portsmouth whom 
Sir Frederick Richards hired at Portsmouth railway 
station by chance to drive him to the Dockyard. He 
didn't recognise the man, but he was an old ship-mate 
who had been with him when Sir Frederick Richards 
commanded a brig on the coast of Africa, suppressing 
the Slave Trade— he led them all a dog's life. The fare 
was a shillii^, and ample at that ; and as old Richards got 
out at the Admiral's door he gave the cabman five shillings, 
but the cabby refused it and said to old Richards : " You 
drove me for nothing on the Coast of Africa, I will drive 
you for nothing now," and he rattled off, leaving old 
Richards speechless with anger. He used to look at Sir 
William Harcourt in exactly the same way. I thought he 
would have apoplexy sometimes. 

Dear Lord Spencer was pretty nearly as bad in hu 
want of lucid exposition ; so I usually did Aaron 
all through with Sir William Harcourt, and one of the 
consequences was that we formed a lasting friendship. 

When I was made a Lord, Stead came to my house that 
very morning and said he had just had a message from Sir 
William Harcourt (who had then been dead for some 
years), saying how glad Sir William was ; and the 
curious thing was that five minutes afterwards I got a 

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letter from his son, now Lord Haroourt, congratulating 
me on my Peerage, which had only been made known an 
hour before. I think Stead said Sir William was in 
Heaven. I don't think he ever quite knew where the 
departed were I 

Campbell-Bannerman was a more awkward customer. 

But it was ail no use. We got the ships and Mr. 
Gladstone went. 

II.— The Gbbat Lord Salisbury's Brother-in-law. 

It really is very sad that those three almost bulky 
volumes of my letters to Lord Esher — ^which he has so 
wonderfully kept-~could not alt have been published 
just as they are. This is one of the reasons for 
my extreme reluctance, which still exists, for these 
" Memories" and " Records " of mine being 
published in my lifetime. When I was dead there 
could be no libel action 1 The only alternative is to 
have a new sort of " Pilgrim's Progress " published — 
the whole three volumes — and substitute Bunyan names. 
But that would be almost as bad as putting their real 
names in — no one could mistake them 1 

I think I have mentioned elsewhere that Liord Ripon, 
when First Lord, whom I had never met, had a design 
to make me a Lord of the Admiralty, but his colleagues 
would not have it and called me " Gambetta." Lord 
Ripon said he had sent for me because someone had 
maligned me to him as " a Radical enthusiast." Well, 
the upshot was that in 1 886 1 became Director of Ordnance 

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of the Navy ; and after a time I came to the definite 
concluaion that the Ordnance of the Fleet was in a very 
bad way, and the only remedy was to take the whole 
business from the War Office, who controlled the Sea 
Ordnance and the munitions of sea war. A very funny 
state of affairs I 

Lord George Hamilton was then First Lord and the 
Great Lord Salisbury was Prime Minister. Lord Salis- 
bury's brother-in-law was the gentleman at the War 
Office who was solely responsible for the Navy deficien- 
cies, bar the politicians. When they cut down the total 
of the Army Estimates, he took it off the Sea Ordnance. 
He had to, if he wanted to be on speaking terms with his 
own cloth. I don't blame him ; I expect I should have 
done the same, more particularly as I believe in a Citizen 
Army — or, as I have called it elsewhere, a Lord-Lieuten- 
ant's Army. (The clothes were a bit different ; but Lord 
Kitchener's Army was uncommonly like it.) Lord 
Geoi^ Hamilton, having patiently heard me, as he always 
did, went to Lord Salisbury. Lord George backed me 
through thick and thin. The result was a Committee — 
the Prime Minister, Lord Salisbury, Chairman ; W. H. 
Smith, Secretary for War ; Lord George Hamilton, First 
Lord of the Admiralty ; the Director of Ordnance at the 
War Office, and myself. It was really a very remarkably 
unpleasant time. I had an awful bad cold—much worse 
than General Alderson, the Prime Minister's brother-in- 
law — and Lord Salisbury never asked after it, while he 
slobbered over Alderson. I just mention that as a straw 
indicating which way the wind blew. The result, after 

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immense flagellations administered to the Director of the 
Sea Ordnance, was that the whole business of the muni- 
tions of war for the Navy was turned over to the Admiralty, 
" lock, stock and gun barrel, bob and sinker," and by 
Herculean efforts and the cordial co-operation of Engel- 
bach, C.B., who had fought against me like a tiger, and 
afterwards helped like an Angel, and of Sir Ralph Knox, 
the Accountant-General of the Army, a big deficit, in 
fact a criminal deficit, of munitions for the Fleet was 
turned over rapidly into a million sterling of surplus. 

They are nearly all dead and gone now, who worked 
this enormous transfer, and I hope they are all in Heaven. 

This story has a lovely sequel ; and I forgave Lord 
Salisbury afterwards for not asking after my cold when, 
in 1899, numy years after, the Hague Peace Conference 
came along and he submitted my name to Queen Victoria 
as the Naval Delegate, with the remark that, as I had 
fought so well against his brother-in-law, there was no 
doubt I should fight at the Peace Conference. So I did, 
though it was not for Peace ; and M. de Staal, who was a 
great friend of mine, and who was the President of the 
Conference, told me that my remarks about boiling the 
crews of hostile submarines in oil when caught, and so 
forth, were really unfit for publication. But W. T. 
Stead tells that story infinitely better than I can. It is 
in the " Review of Reviews " for February, 1910. 

But there is another providential sequel to the events 

with which I began this statement. I made great friends 

at the Peace Conference with General Gross von 

Schwarzhoff and Admiral von Siegd, the Military and 


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Naval German Delegates, and I then (in 1899) imbibed 
those ideas as to the North Sea being our battle ground, 
which led to the great things between 1902 and 1910. 

in. — Ship-building andDocktardWoskbrs. 

I have been asked to explain how I got rid of 6,000 
redundant Dockyard workmen, when Mr. Childers 
nearly wrecked his Government by turning out but a few 
hundred. Well, this was how it was done. We brought 
home some 160 ships from abroad that could neither 
fight nor run away ; enough men were thua provided 
for the fighting portion of the crews for all the new ships 
then tying in the Dockyards, which were not only deteri- 
orating in their hulls and equipment for want of care, 
but were inefficient for war because officers and men must 
have practice in the ship they fight as much as the Bisley 
shot with his rifle, the jockey with his race-horse and the 
chef with his sauces. It is practice that makes perfect. 
The original plan for mobilising the Navy for war was 
that on the outbreak of war you disorganised the ships 
already fully manned and efficient by taking a portion of 
the trained crew, thus impairing the efficiency of that ship, 
and putting them into the un-manned ships and filling 
up both the old and the new — the former efficient ships 
and those in the dockyards — ^with men ^m the Reserve. 
So the whole Navy got disorganised. And that was what 
they called " Preparing for War ! " By what Mr. 
Balfour called a courageous stroke of the pen, in hts q}eech 
at Manchester, when he was Prime Minister, every vessel 

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in the Fleet by the new system had its fighting crew 

Those who were to fill up the hiatus were the hewert 
of wood and the drawers of water. The brains were 
there ; only the beef had to come, and the beef mtght 
have been taken from the Army. 

When are we going to have the great Army and Navy 
Co-operative Society, which I set forth to King Edward 
in 1903 — that the Army should be a Reserve for the 
Navy ? When shall we be an amphibious nation ? 
This last war has made us into a conscript Nation. 

Well, to revert to the subject of how we got rid of the 
6,000 redundant dockyard workmen. When that mass 
of Officers and men set free by the scrapping of the 160 
ships that couldn't fight nor run away came back to 
Chatham, Portsmouth, Devonport, Pembroke, and 
Queenstown, then in those dock}wd towns the tradesmen 
had the time of their lives, for the money that had flowed 
into the pockets of the Chinese, the Chileans, the Peru- 
vians, the Boers, the Brazilians, made the shopkeepers of 
the dockyard towns into a mass of Liptons, so that when 
the 6,000 Dockyard workers tried, as they had done in the 
time of yore (in the time of Childers), to get the dockyard 
tradespeople to agitate and turn out their Members of 
Parliament, the tradespeople simply replied, " You be 
damned I " and I arranged to find congenial occupation for 
these redimdant dockyard workmen in private yards 
where they were much needed. 

When I became Admiral Superintendmt of Ports- 
mouth Dockyard, I took another drastic step in concen- 

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trating all the workmen then leisurely building several 
different ships, and put them all like a hive of bees on to 
one ship and extended piece-work to the utmost limit 
that was conceivable. The result was that a battle-ship 
which would have taken three years to build was built 
in one year ; for the work of building a ship is so inter- 
laced, when they are working by piece-work especially, 
that if one man does not work his fellow workmen cannot 
earn so much, so this piece-work helps the overseers 
because the men oversee each other. 

But there is another great principle which this hides. 
The one great secret of the lighting value of a battleship 
is to get her to sea quickly :— 

" Build few, and build fast. 
Each one better than the last." 

You will come across some idiots whose minds are so 
deliciously symmetrical that they would prefer ten tor- 
toises to one greyhound to catch a hare, and it was one of 
the principal articles of the ancient creed that you built 
ships in batches. They strained at the gnat of imiformity 
and so swallowed the camel of inferiority. No progress — 
th^ were a batch. 

IV. — " Jolly and Hustle." 

I have just been asked by an alluring, thou^ somewhat 
elusive friend, to describe to you quite an eccellent 
illustration of those fomous words in " Eccle^astes " 
" Cast thy bread upon the waters for thou shalt find it •fto' 
many da}-s." That's the text this alluring friend sug- 



gested to me to exemplify. For myself, I prefer the more 
heavenly text where the Scripture says : "Be not for- 
getful to entertain strangers : for thereby some have 
entertained angels unawares." It was quite an ai^el that 
I had to do with, and he ate my bread as follows : — 

One day, when I was Admiral in North America, I 
received a telegram : " The President of the Grand 
Trunk Railway with forty distinguished American friends 
was arriving in about an hour's time on some business 
connected with railway affairs, and could they be per- 
mitted to see the battleship ' Renown.* " The "Renown " 
was my flagship. I sent a reply to the next station their 
special train was stopping at, asking them to lunch on 
board on their arrival at i p.m. I sent for Monsieur 
A\igt, my wonderful chef, who on the produce of his 
service with me afterwards set up a restaurant in Paris 
(he really was excellent — but so extravt^;ant I) and told 
him : " Lunch for forty, in an hour*8 time." All he said 
waa " Oui, Monsieur," and he did it well ! I myself 
being really amazed. 

The Company greatly enjoyed themselves. I had some 
wonderful champagne obtained &om Admiral McCrea — 
of immortal memory as regards that requisite — ^which 
effectively seconded M. Aug£'s magnificent lunch. 

Years after — it was in March, 1902 — I was in a serious 
dilemma as to the completion of the necessary buildings 
at Osborne for the new scheme of entry of Officers to be 
inaugurated by the King in person, who was to open 
the new establishment on the fourth day of August 
following. Every effort Itad failed to get a satisfactory 

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contract, when after a prolonged but fruitless discussion, 
I was sitting thinking what the devil I should do, when an 
Officer came in to see me on some business and mentioned 
casually that he had just come from lunching at the 
Carlton and had happened to overhear a man at an adja- 
cent table say that he would give anything to see Sir 
John Fisher, as he had given him — ^with many others — 
the very best Itmch he had ever had in his life. I sent the 
Officer back to the Carlton to bring him. On his arrival 
in my room I didn't remember him, but he at once thanked 
me — not for seeing the " Renown " and all the other 
things — but only for the lunch. He said he belonged to 
St. Louis and was over in England on business. He 
had completed a big hotd in three months, which no one 
else would contract to build under three years. 

Then I thought of that angel whom I had entertained 
unawares ; certainly the bread that was cast came back 
all right. I explained my difficulty to him — I had alt the 
particulars. He said he had his American staff over here, 
who had been working at the Hotel, and he would attend 
with the contract and the drawings in forty-eight hours. 
And he did. The contract was signed, and King Edward 
opened the buildings on August 4th. 

An expert of our own who participated in the final 
proceedings asked the American gentleman's foreman how 
he did it, and especially how he had managed that hotel in 
the three months. I overheard the American's answer : 
" Well," he said, " this is how our boss does it ; when he 
is a-laying of the foundations he is a-thinking of the roof." 
" What is his name ? " said the English expert. " Well," 



replied the American, ** his name is Stewart, but we always 
caU him ' JOLLY & HUSTLE.' " " Oh 1 " said the 
English eipert, " Why that name ? " " Well, " he says, 
" I will teil you. There's not one of hia workmen, not 
even the lower grades, gets less than fifteen shillings a day» 
and as much as he likes to eat and drink — iiee of cost. 
Well, that's joify. But we has to work uxteen hours a 
a day — that's hustle." 

So when the defences of the Humber came into my 
mind and no contractor could be got for so gigantic a 
business, I telegraphed for "Jolly & Hustle," and when he 
came over and said he would do it and that he was going 
to bring everything, from a pin up to a pile-driver, from 
America, it made the contractors at home reconsider the 
position — and they did the work. 

V. — " Buying up Oppobtuntties." 

The words I take to head this section arc as applicable 
to the affairs of common life as they are to reUgion, with 
reference to which they were originally spoken. 

What these words signify is that Faith governs all 
things. Victories on Earth have as their foundation the 
same saving virtue of Faith. 

One great exercise of Faith is " Redeeming the Time," 
as Paul says. (I'm told the literal meaning of the 
original Greek is " buying up opportunities.") Most 
people from want of Faith won't try again. Lord 
Kelvin often used to tell me of his continuous desire of 
" redeeming the time." Even in dressii^ himself he 

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sought every opportunity of saving time (so he told me) 
in th'nking of the next operation. However his busy 
brain sometimes got away from the business in hand, 
as he once put his necktie in his pocket and his handker- 
chief round his neck. (Another wonderfully clever 
friend of mine, who used to think in the Differential 
Calculus, I once met immaculately dressed, but he had 
his trousers over his arm and not on.) And yet I am told 
he was an extraordinarily acute business man. Every sailor 
owes him undying gratitude for his '* buying up oppor- 
tunities " in the way he utilised a broken thigh, which 
compelled him to go in a yacht, to invent his marvellous 
compass and sounding machine. At the Bombardment 
of Alexandria the firing of the eighty ton guns of the 
'* Inflexible " with maximum charges, which blew my 
cap off my head and nearly deafened me, had no effect 
on his compasses, and enabled us with supreme advan- 
tage to keep the ship steaming about rapidly and so get 
less ofiten hit whilst at the same time steering the ship 
with accuracy amongst the shoals. So it was with the 
ancient sounding machine : one had to stop the ship to 
sound, and it was a laborious operation and inaccurate. 
Lord Kelvin devised a glass tube which by the height 
of the discoloration gave you the exact depth, no matter 
how fast the ship was going ; and the beauty of it was 
you kept the tubes as a register. 

It was an immense difficulty getting the Admiralty to 
adopt Lord Kelvin's compass. I was reprimanded for 
having them on board. I always asked at a Court- 
Martial, no matter what the prisoner was being tried for, 

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whether they had Lord Kelvin's compass on board. It 
was only ridicule that got rid of the old Admiralty com- 
pass. At the inquiry the Judge asked me whether 
the Admiralty compass was sensitive (I was a witness 
for Lord Kelvin). I replied, ** No, you had to kick 
it to get a move on." But what most scandalised 
the dear old Fossil who then presided over the 
Admiralty compass department was that I wanted 
to do away with the points of the compass and mark 
it into the three himdred and sixty degrees of the 
circle (you might as well have asked them to do away 
with salt beef and rum I). There could then never be 
any mistake as to the course the ship should steer. 
However, a landsman won't imderstand the beauty of 
this simplicity, and the " Old Salts " said at that time 
" There he is again — the d — d Revolutionary ! " 

But to revert to " buying up opportunities " : I know 
no more signal instance of the goodness of Paul's advice 
both to the Ephesians and Colossians in things temporal 
as in things spiritual than as exemplified by the Gunnery 
Lieutenant of the " Inflexible " in discovering a fracture 
in one of her eighty-ton guns. He was always thinking 
ahead in everything — " Buying up Opportunities." 

After the Bombardment of Alexandria we two were 
walking along the shore ; he stopped and said, " Hullo I 
that's a bit of one of our shell, and it burst in the bore of 
the gun." As there were no end of pieces of burst shell 
about, which had exploded in striking the fort, I said, 
" How do you know it is ? " He pointed to the marks 
of the rifling on the shell, which showed that it had burst 

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in the bore and had been pressed into the grooves of the 
rifling, instead of being rotated by the copper band on its 
passage through the bore. Then he put his hand in hit 
pocket, took out his clinometer, laid it on the marks of 
the rifling on the bit of burst shell ; and the rifling of 
our eighty-ton guns having an increasing spiral, he cal- 
culated the exact spot in the gun where the shell had burst. 
And when he got on board he had himself shoved up the 
bore of the gun holdingapieceof hot gutta percha, like that 
with which the dentist takes the impression of your mouth 
for a set of false teeth, and brought me out the impression 
of where the gim had been cracked by the explosion of 
the shell. Younghusband was his name — perhaps the 
most gifted man I ever met, but, as unusual with genius, 
he was not indolent and was always practising himself in 
seizing opportunities. When the constituted authorities 
came to inspect the gun, though Youi^husband put the 
broken bit of shell before them, they took a long time to 
find that crack. One night at Portsmouth someone told 
Younghusband, who was having his third glass of port 
after dinner, that he was too fat to walk. For a con- 
siderable bet he got up there and then and walked 
seventy-two miles to London. Younghusband never 
went to any school in his life ; he never left home ; he 
never had a governess or a tutor. He was taught by his 

VI. — How THE Grbat Was was Carried on. 

Six weeks after I left the Admiralty on May 22nd, 

191 5 — that deplorable day, the particulars of which I 


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am not at present at tiberty to mention — I received most 
cordial letters from both Mr. Asquith and Mr. Balfour 
welcoming me to fill a Post of great magnitude. 

I am impelled to digress here for a few moments to 
tell a very excellent story of Dean Hole (famous for the 
cultivation of roses). He said to his Curate one day, 
*' I am sick of hearing the name of that poor man whom 
we pray for every Sunday ; just say ' the prayers of the 
Congregation are requested for a member of the Con- 
gregation \riio is grievously ill.' " Next Sunday the 
Curate said at the usual place in Divine Service, " The 
prayers of the Congregation are requested for a gentleman 
whose name I'm not at liberty to mention I " That's 
my case in regard to what happened between Saturday, 
May 15th, and Saturday, May 2znd, during which time 
I received communications which I hold in my hand 
at this moment, and which some day when made public 
will be just astonishing 1 I am advised that the Law 
does not permit even an outline of them to be given. 

I was invited by Mr. Balfour to preside bver an Assem- 
blage of the most Eminent Men of Science for War 
purposes ; the chief point was the German Submarine 
Menace. Also we had to consider InventiooSt as well 
as Scientific Research. 

My three Super-Eminent CoUe^;ues of the Central 
Committee of this great Scientffic Organisation were 
very famous men ; — 

(i) Sir J. J. Thomson, O.M., President of the Royal 
Society and now Master of Trinity. I am told (and I 
believe it) a man unparalleled in Science. 

65 F 

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(2) The Hon. Sir Charles Parsons, K.C.B., the 
Inventor of the Turbine, which has changed the whole 
art of Marine Engineering, and enabled us to sink 
Admiral von Spec. We couldn't have sunk von Spee 
without Parsons's Turbine, as those two great Fast 
Battle-Cruisers " Invincible " and " Inflexible " could 
not have steamed otherwise 14.000 miles without a 
hitch (there and back). They only arrived at the Falkland 
Islands a few hours before Admiral von Spee. 

(3) Sir George Beilby, F.R.S., one of the greatest 
of Chemists, who, if we don't take care, will give us a 
smokeless England, by getting rid of coal in its present 
beastly form, and turning it into oil and fertilisers, dyes, 
etc., etc. The Refuse he sells to the Poor fifty per cent, 
cheaper than coal and without smoke or ashes. 

The Advisory Panel of other Distinguished Men was 
as famous as these Magi. There were also many Eminent 

I felt extreme diffidence in occupying the Chair ; 
however, I put it to them all in the famous couplet of 
the French author who, in annexing the thoughts trf 
other people, took this couplet as the text of his book : — 

" I have cull'd a garland of flowers, 
Mine oidy is the string that binds them." 

I said to them all at our first Assemblage : " Gentlemen, 
You are the Flowers, I am the String I " 

You would have thought that such a Galaxy of Talent 
would have been revered, welcomed, and ob^ed — on 
the contrary, it was derided, spumed, and ignt»^. 

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The permanent " Expert Limpets " did for us I All 
the three First Lords at the Admiralty whom we dealt 
with in succession were most cordial and most apprecia- 
tive, but all three were equally powerless. Just a couple 
or so of instances will suffice to illustrate the reason why 
we at last said to Sir Eric Geddes : — 

" Ave Geddes Imperator ! 
" Morituri te Salutant." 

(i) The chief abject of this munificent Scientific 
Organisation being to coimter the German Sub- 
marine Menace, we nattmdly asked for a Submarine to 
experiment with. The answer was " one could not 
be spared." 

(2) We asked to be furnished with all the details 
of the destruction of German Submarines that had 
already taken place, which of course lay at the root 
of further investigation. This was denied us I 

(3) A " Submarine Detector " was developed 
under the auspices of the Central Committee by 

* May, 1916. A year was allowed to elapse before 
it was taken up ; and even then its progress was 
cancelled because nothing more than a laboratory 
experiment with a competing invention came to 
the notice of the " Limpets." 

(4) The Scientific Members of our Association 
had conceived and practically demonstrated a most 
astoundingly simple method of discovering the 
passage of German Submarines. It was termed 
" The Loop Detection " scheme. It was turned 

67 F a 

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(2) '1 ! ^ acsjnennrds was violently 

Invtnt. : _^.,.,„ T successful results, 
art nt 

^jjj,:. ..^ .Afld really, after all, what 

witi ... -xTtsc} 

U-,,, _^ I jince given me referring 
^.«K*i One was:— 


_^^ see. consent thou not ! — 

^ _ju AJiiress for future reference." 

_^ — ' Fear less — hope more ; eat 
.jiiie less— breathe more (deep 
^ 3i« more ; hate less — love more, 
..s -.curs." 

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" Govenment of the people — by the people— for the people." 

(President Abraham Lincoln at Getfyshwg, 1863.) 

SOMB time ago the Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge 
University presided at a lecture on Democracy given at 
Cambridge by the Professor of History at Chicago 
{A. C. McLaughlin). I gather that he implied that 
Democracy is helpless in the game of secret diplomacy 
and secret treaties. Democracy now all depends upon the 
purpose and desire of the English-speaking people. 

It's an opportune moment to repeat John Bright's 
very famous speech on a great federation of the nations 
that speak the Anglo-Saxon tongue. 

The speech was given me when crossing the Atlantic 
by a splendid citizen of the United States, where I had 
just been receiving boundless hospitality and a wonderful 
welcome, and had realised the truth about a prophet 
when not in his own country, and had been asked to 
" stump the Middle West " to advocate the cause of 
friendship amongst all those who speak our incomparable 
tongue, and to establish a Great Commonwealth of Free 
Nations. There can be no secret treaties and no secret 

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diplomacy when the Government is of the People, by the 
People, for the People. 
This is John Blight's speech : 

" Now what can one say of the future of our race and 
of our kinsmen ? Is that merely a dream ? By no 
means. . . . Look where we are now ? . . . 

" In this country, in Canada, and in the United States 
there are, or soon will be, one hundred and fifty millions of 
population, nearly all of whom owe their birth and origin to 
the comparatively small country in which we live. It is 
a fact that is not paralleled in any past history, and what 
may come in the future to compare with it or excel it, it 
is not for us to speak of, or even with any show of reason 
to imagine ; but we have in all these millions the same 
language, the same literature, mainly the same laws 
and the institutions of freedom. May we not hope for 
the highest and noblest federation to be established 
among us ? That is a question to which I would ask 
vour special and sympathetic attention. The noblest 
kind of federation amon^ us, under different Govern- 
ments it may be, but united by race, by sympathy, by 
freedom of industry, by communion of mterests and by 
a perpetual peace, we may help to lead the world to that 
better time which we long for and which we believe in, 
though it may not be permitted to our mortal eyes to 
behold it." 

That was said by John Bright. 

The time has now come for this great federation which 
he desired — for this great Commonwealth of Free 

There is only one type of treaty which is effective — 
" Community of Interests." 

All other treaties are " Scraps of Paper." 

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It is maintained by eminent men that the late appallii^ 
and disastrous war, in which so many millions of human 
beings have been massacred or maimed, would never 
have occurred had there been a real Democracy in power 
in EtigUmd, They say, as a small instance, that the 
great Mutiny at the Nore and other mutinies were brought 
about by trampling on Democracy. 

This is what pure and unadulterated Democracy is, 
and we have not got it in England : — 


For instance, no parent with less than nearly a £1000 
a year can now send his boy into the Navy as an 
Officer I 

Nature is no respecter of birth or money power when 
she lavishes her mental and physical gifts. 

We fight God when our Social System dooms the brUUant 
clever child of the poor man to the same level as his father. 

Therefore, we must have such State provision and 
such State education as will enable the very poorest in 
the land to let their eligible children rise to Admirals, 
Generals, Ambassadors, and Statesmen. 

Can it be conceived that a real Democracy would have 
permitted secret treaties such as have been divulged to 
us, or have scouted the terms of Peace which were 
allowed only to be seen by Kings and Prime Ministers ; 
or would a real Democracy .have flouted the Russian 
Revolution in its first agonizing throes when gasping for 
help and recognition P 


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In a real Democracy, m>uld true Labour leaders have 
waited on the doormat ? 

Would a real Democracy wave the red rag of" Empire *' 
in front of these noble self-governing peoples all speaking 
our tongue in their own free Parliaments, and all of them 
praying for the hastening of the time when " England^ 
the Mother of Free Parliaments, shall herself be free " ? 

But the Glorious Epoch is now fast approaching I 

A Prime Minister once complimented me on a casual 
saying of mine at his luncheon table. I was accounting 
for part of my success against 

" Many giants great and tall," 
and I ventured to state that : — 

" The secret of successful administration was the 
intelligent anticipation of agitation." 

Anticipate the Revolution. Do the thing yourself in 
your vfay before the agitators get in before you and do it 
in their way. Get rid of the present obsolete Forms and 
Antique Ceremonies which grate on the masses, and of 
Figureheads who are laughing-stocks, and of sinecures 
which are ocasperating — and so anticipate another Crom- 
well, who is certainly now coming fast along to " Remove 
another Bauble I " 

I forget what they did to the man who tried to import 
poisonous snakes into New Zealand (finding that happy 
island unblessed with this commodity). It was something 
quite drastic they did to him ! They killed the snakes. 

The Canadian House of Commons adopted by a 
majority of 33 a motion by Sir Robert Borden, on behalf 

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of the Canadian Government, asking that no more 
hereditary titles should be bestowed in Canada, and 
declaring that the Canadian Government should make 
all recommendations for honours of any kind. This 
motion was a compromise designed to damp down the 
popular outcry against titles which has arisen in Canada. 
In one debate Sir Wilfrid Laurier offered to throw his 
own title on a common bonfire. He urged that all titles 
in Canada should be abolished. 

Why should Great Britain lag behind Canada and the 
United States ? Hereditary titles are ludicrously out of 
date in any modem democracy, and the sooner we sweep 
away all the gimcracks and gewgaws of snobbery the 
better. The foimt of so-called honour has become a 
deluge, and the newspapers are hard put to it to find 
room for even the spray of the deluge. 

The war has not begotten simplicity and austerity in 
this respect. On the contrary, it has made what used to 
be a comedy a screaming farce. There was a time when 
the Birthday Honours List could be printed on one day, 
but it is now a serial novel. The first chapter of the 
latest Birthday list was long, but the Times warned us 
that it was only " the first of a series which already 
threatens to outlast the week— quite apart from the 
gigantic Order of the British Empire." 

Chicago's great Professor of History, Mr. McLaughlin, 
made the statement at the Kings^ray Hall, in his address 
to British teachers, that now the United States have over 
loo millions of people, and fifty years from now th^ 
may well have 200 million»— a great Atlantic and Pacific 

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Power. The Professor added that this great War 
was " to protect Democrat agrnnst the greatest menace 
it has ever had ** (in the present rule of Kings and 
Secret Treaties, etc.. etc.). Another points out as a 
striking example of present old-time conditions (so 
pernicious to freedom and efficiency) the positive fact 
now existing that our Military Leaders, by a class 
distinction, were only selected from one twenty-fifth of 
the ore which we have at our disposal though we had 
brought five million men under arms, as all our generals 
commanding armies, army corps, divisions, and in most 
cases brigades, were drawn from among the Regular 
Forces who handled our small pre-War Army of two 
hundred thousand men. And the writer adds : 

" If considered purely from the standpoint of the law 
of averages, one would expect to find more good brains 
if one searched the entire Kiim than in merely looking for 
material in one twenty-fifth of it." 

General Currie, who so ably commands all the Canadian 
Forces, was a Land Agent before the War. Neither 
Napoleon nor Wellington ever commanded a regiment. 
Marlborough never handled an army till he was fifty- 
two years of age. Clive was a Bank Clerk. Napoleon's 
maxim was " La carrikre ouverte aux talents." Are we 
ever going to adopt it ? 


This truth is {and ever toill be) the fact that the only 
pact that ever holds, and the only treaty that ever lasts 


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and we can only have Conununity of Interest in the 
masses of a People always being on the side of Peace, 
because it's the masses who are massacred, not the 
Kings and Generals and Politicians (they are plentifully 
fed and comfortably housed, and have the best white 
bread — vide the American Dentist, Davies, when he 
stayed with the German Emperor). 

Well I the only way the masses of the People can act 
effectively is by means of Republics. Because then no 
secret diplomacy ever answers, and no one man can make 
war, or no coterie of men. In a Republic we get " Gov- 
ernment of the People, by the People, for the People." 

It's a cheap sneer to ask how long the same Govern- 
ment ever exists in Republican France t Nevertheless, 
sooner millions of changes of Government and Peace 
than a stable Government with War I A Republic is 
ahoays Peace-loving / except when righteous fury in a 
gust of popular rage sweeps it into war, as lately in 
America ; but it took four years to move them I The 
People pushed the President. We are going to have 
Bolshevism unless we foster these German Republics, 
and it will spread righteously to England. 

These ]L.eagues of Nations and Freedoms of the Seas 
and all the other items are all d — d nonsense I When War 
does come, then " Might is Right." " La raison du plus 
fort est toujours la meilleure I " and every treaty is a 
Scrap of Paper I 

The Essence of War is Violence. 

Moderation in War is Imbecility. 


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You hit first, you hit hard, and keep on hitting. 
You have to be Ruthless, Relentless and Remorseless. 
It's perfect rot to talk about " Civilised Warfare 1 " 
You might as well talk about a " Heavenly Hell I " 

From Lord Fisher to a Friend. 

Mr Dear , 

I wrote to a distinguished friend to note (but not 
to congratulate him^ that he had been made " a Com- 
panion of Honour ' (what that is I don't know I), and 
told him one of the disadvantages of even a " Limited 
Monarchy " was the making of us all into Christmas 
Trees to hang Decorations upon I He replied he had 
declined it, as he did not wish " to be regarded as a dab 
of paint to camouflage this new Order instituted for 
Labour Leaders I " Haven't I always told you we are a 
Nation of Snobs, and that even the Labour Leaders don't 
resent being kept hanging about on the door mat P 

My dear friend adds : " I feel sure your conception 
of Democracy will be realised." (I had sent him my 
Paper on Democracy that you didn't like I) " Liberty 
means a Country where every man or woman has an e^ial 

" The race of Life in a civilised Country is a race 
carried out under a system of handicaps, and the people 
who do the handicapping are the people of the least 

" The prophecy you send me is wonderful." 

I think the words of this my friend will interest you, 
though perhaps not convince you I 

Yours till death, 



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The Battlb Hymn of tmb Republic. 

I have been sitting this morning under a Presbyterian 
Minister, Dr. Hugh Black, whose eloquence so moved 
the Prime Minister, Mr. Lloyd George (who kindly 
gave me a seat in his pew, on the other side of 
me being President Wilson, at the Presbyterian Church 
in Paris on May 25th, 1919), that the moment the 
service was ended the Prime Minister went straight 
to him in the pulpit and told him it was one of the 
best sermons he had ever heard. And it probably 
was. One word Dr. Black used was very descriptive. 
He described us all, except those homeless ones for whom 
the Saviour pleaded in Dr. Black's text, as the " sheltered " 
classes. I think also our feelings in the congregation 
(not that I wish to derogate from the sermon) had been 
intensely moved by the magnificent singing on the part 
of the great congregation (mostly American Citizens) of 
the Battle Hymn of the American Republic, composed 
by Julia Ward Howe. The tune (" John Brown's Body "), 
as Mr. Sankey said, no doubt has much to do with the 
glorious emphasis of the chorus ; but certainly the words 
are magnificent : — 


Uine eyes have seen the Glory of the Coming of the Lord ; 

He is tnmpling out the vintage where the grapes of wrath are 

He hath loosed the fatal lightning of His tenible swift sword. 
His truth is marching on. 

Gk>ryl Glory I Hallelajahl Glory I Glory I HaUelujaht 
Glory I Glory 1 Hallelujah I His truth is marctuog on. 

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I have seen Him in the watch-fires of a hundred drding camps ; 
They have builded Him an altar in the evening dews and damps ; 
I can read His righteous sentence by the dim and flaring lamps. 
His day is marchmg on. 
Glory, etc. 

I have read a fiery gospel writ in burnished rows ol steel ; 
" As ve deal with my contemneis, so with you my grace shall deal " 
Let the Hero bom of woman cru^ the serpent with His heel. 
Since God is marching on. 
Glory, etc. 

He has sounded forth the trumpet that ^all never call retreat ; 
He is sifting out the hearts of men before His Judgment seat ; 
Oh, be swift, my soul, to answer Him ! be jubilant, my feet ! 
Our God is marching on. 
Glory, etc. 

In the beauty of the lilies Christ was bom across the sea ; 
With the glory in His bosom that transfigures you and me ; 
As He died to make men holy, let us die to matce men free. 
While God is marching on. 
Glory, etc. 

It reminded me of the 76th Psalm, sung by those old 
Covenanters when they vanquished Claverhouse at 
Drumclog. We see the Battle Field of Drumclog from 
the room where we are now talking. 

" In Judah's land God is well known. 
His name's in Isr'l great," 

I began a letter (but diffidence made me stop it) to 
Sir William Watson the poet, to ask him if he couldn't 
give us some such great Hymn for the Nation. 

" God Save the King " is worn out. We don't 
individualise now. It is as worn out as knee breeches 
for Court Functions or Gold Lace Coats for Sea Officers. 

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I HAVE made four accurately reported public speeches* 
the fifth one (at Mr. Josephus Daniels's reception by the 
American Luncheon Club) is too inadequate to include 
here. For none of these four speeches had I any notes* 
except for the one of a hundred words and one of fifty 
words* both delivered in the House of Lords. The 
other two were simply and solely my exuberant verbosity, 
and they must be read with that remark in mind. I was 
saturated with the subject ; and when the Times reporter 
came and asked me for my speech before I'd made it, I 
told him with truth that I really didn't know what I was 
going to say. I might have been like Thackeray (What 
a cliusic case his was I). He was the Guest of Honour. 
He got up, was vociferously cheered, and was dumb. 
After a death-like silence he said these words, and sat 
down : — " If I could only remember what I thought of 
to say to you when I was coming here in the cab* you 
really would have had a delightful speech I " 

I.— Thb Rotal Academy Banquet* 1903. 
The Navy always readily appreciates the kind words in 
which this toast is proposed* and also the kind manner in 

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which it is always received. I beg to thank you especially, 
Mr. President, for your kind reference to Captain Percy 
Scott, which was so well deserved. He was indeed a 
handy man. (Cheers.) Personally I have not the same 
pleasurable feelings on this occasion as I enjoyed last 
year, when I had no speech to make. I remember quite 
well remarking to my neighbour : " How good the 
whitebait is, how excellent the champagne, and how jolly 
not to have to make a speech." He glained at me and said : 
" I have got to make a speech, and the whitebait to me is 
bet* noir«, and the champagne is real pain." (Laughter.) 
He was so ready with his answer that I thought to myself : 
" Youll get through it all right," and sure enough he did, 
for he spoke thirty minutes by the clock without a check. 
(Laughter.) I am only going to give you three minutes 
(cries of " No.") Yes. I always think on these occasions 
of the first time I went to sea on board my first ship, an 
old sailing two-decker, and I saw inscribed in great big 
gold letters the one word " Silence." (Laughter.) 
Underneath was another good motto : " Deeds, not 
words." (Cheers.) I have put that into every ship I 
have commanded since. (Cheers.) Thb leads me to 
another motto which is better still, and brings me to the 
point of what I have to say in reply to the toast that has 
been proposed. When I was Commander-in-Chief in 
the Mediterranean I went to inspect a small Destroyer, 
only 260 tons, but with such pride and swagger that she 
might have been 16,000 tons. (Laughter.) The young 
Lieutenant in command took me round. She was in 
beautiful order, and I came aft to the wheel and saw 

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there the inscription : ** Ut Veniant Onmes." " Hallo," 
I said, " what the deuce is that ? " (Laughter.) Saluting 
me, he said : " Let 'em all come. Sir." (Great laughter 
and cheers.) Well, that was not boasting ; that was the 
sense of conscious efficiency — (cheers) — the sense that 
permeates the whole Fleet — (cheers) — and I used to 
think, as the Admiral, it will be irresistible provided the 
Admiral is up to the mark. The Lord Chief Justice, 
sitting near me now, has kindly promised to pull me down 
if I say too much I (Laughter.) But what I wish to 
remark to you is this — and it is a good thing for everybody 
to know it — there has been a tremendous change in Navy 
matters since the old time. In regard to Naval war^e 
history is a record of exploded ideas. (Laughter and 
cheers.) In the old days they were sailors' battles ; 
now they are Admirals' battles. I should like to recall 
to you the greatest battle at sea ever fou^t. What was 
the central episode of that ? Nelson receiving his death- 
wound 1 "What was he doing ? Walking up and down 
on the quarter-deck arm-in-arm with his Captain. It is 
dramatically described to us by . an onlooker. His 
Secretary is shot down ; Nelson turns round and says : 
" Poor Scott 1 Take him down to the cockpit," and then 
he goes on again walking up and down, having a yam with 
his Captain. What does that mean ? It means that in 
the old days the Admiral took his fleet into action ; each 
ship got alongside the enemy ; and, as Nelson finely said, 
" they got into thdr proper place." (Cheers.) And 
then the Admiral had not much more to do. The ships 
were touching one another nearly, the Bos'un went with 
8i G 

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some rope and lashed them together so as to make them 
quite comfortable — (laughter) — and the sailors loaded 
and fired away till it was time to board. But what is the 
case now ? It is conceivable that within twenty minutes 
of sighting the enemy on the horizon the action will have 
begim, and on the disposition of his Fleet by the Admiral 
— on his tactics — the battle will depend, for all the 
gunnery in the world is no good if the guns are masked by 
our own ships or cannot bear on the enemy I In that 
way I wish to tell you how much depends on the Admirals 
now and on their education. Therefore, joined with this 
spirit, of which the remark of the young Lieutenant I 
mentioned to you is an indication, permeating the whole 
Sernce, we require a fearless, vigorous, and progressive 
administration, open to any reform — (loud cheers) — 
never resting on its oars— for to stop is to go back — and 
forecasting every eventuality. I will just take two in- 
stances at hazard. 

Look at the Submarine Boat and Wirelets Telegraphy. 
When they are perfected toe do not know what a Revolution 
mil come about. 

In their inception they were the weapons of the weak. 
Now they loom large as the weapons of the strong. 
Will any Fleet be able to be in narroto waters f 

Is there the slightest fear of invasion with them, even 
for the most extreme pessimist ? I might mention other 
subjects ; but the great fact which I come to is that we 
are realising — ^the Navy and the Admiralty are realising 
— that on the British Navy rests the British En^e. 
(Loud cheers.) Nothing else is of any use without it, not 



even the Army. (Here the gallant Admiral, amid laughter, 
turped to Mr. Brodrick, the Secretary for War, who sat 
near him.) We are different from Continental nations. 
No soldier of ours can go anywhere unless a sailor carries 
him there on his back. (Laughter.) I am not dis- 
paraging the Army. I am looking forward to their coming 
to sea with us i^ain as they did in the old days. Why, 
Nelson had three regiments of in^try with him at the 
battle of Cape St. Vincent, and a Sergeant of the 69th 
Regiment led the boarders, and. Nelson havii^ only one 
arm, it was the Sergeant who helped him up. (Cheers.) 
The Secretary for War particularly asked me to allude to 
the Army or else I would not have done it. (Loud 
laughter.) In conclusion, I assure you that the Navy 
and the Admiralty recognise their responsibility. I think 
I may say that we now have a Board of Admiralty that is 
united, progressive, and determined — (cheers) — and you 
may sleep quietly in your beds — (loud cheers). 

II.^Thb Lord Mayor's Banqijgt, 1907. 

As to the strei^h, the efficiency, and the sufficiency of 
the Navy, I am able to give you indisputable proofs. 
Recently, in the equinoctial season in the North Sea we 
have had twenty-six of the finest batdeships in the 
world and twenty-five of the finest cruisers, some of them 
equal to foreign battleships, and over fifty other vessels, 
under eleven Admirals, and all working tmder a distin- 
guished Commander-in-Chief, under very trying circum- 
stances and in a very stormy time, and I look in vain to 
83 G 3 

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see any equal to that large Fleet anywhere. (Cheers.) 
That is only a fraction of our power. (Cheers.) And 
that large Fleet is mdH sectmdus, as they say, whether it is 
ships or oiBcers or men. (Cheers.) Now, I turn to the 
other point, the gunnery of the Fleet. The gunnery 
efficiency of the Fleet has surpassed all records — it is 
unparalleled — and I am lost in wonder and admiration 
at the splendid unity of spirit and determination that 
must have been shown by everybody from top to bottom 
to obtain these results. (Cheers.) I am sure that your 
praise and your appreciation will go forth to them, 
because, remember, the best ships, the biggest Navy — 
my friend over there talked about the two-Power standard 
— a million-Power standard (laughter) is no use unless 
you can hit. (Cheers.) You must hit first, you miist hit 
hard, and you must keep on hitting. (Cheers.) If these 
are the fruits, I don't think there is much wrong with the 
government of the Navy. (Cheers.) Figs don't grow 
on thistles. (Laughter and cheers.) But a gentleman 
of fine feeli:^ has lately said that the recent Admiralty 
administration has been attended with the devil's own 
luck. (Laughter.) That interesting personality 
(laughter) — his luck is due to one thing, and one thii^ 
only — hesitates at nothing to gain his object. That is 
what the Board of Admiralty have done, and our object 
has been the fighting efficiency of the Fleet and its instant 
readiness for war ; and we have got it. (Cheers.) And 
I say it because no one can have a fuller knowledge than 
myself about it, and I speak with the fullest sense of re- 
sponsibility. (Cheers.) So I turn to all of you, and I 



turn to my countrymen and I say — Steep quiet in your 
beds (laughter and cheers), and do not be disturbed by 
these bogeys — invasion and otherwise — which are being 
periodically resuscitated by all sorts of leagues. 
(Laughter.) I do not know what league is working this 
one. It is quite curious what reputable people lend them- 
selves to these scares. This afternoon I read the effu- 
sions of a red-hot and most charmingly interesting maga- 
zine editor. He had evidently been victimised by a 
Punch correspondent, and that Punch correspondent had 
been gulled by some Midshipman Easy of the Channel 
Fleet. He had been there. And this is what the maga- 
zine editor prints in italics in this month's magazine — 
that an army of 100,000 German soldiers had been practis- 
ing embarking in the German Fleet. The absolute truth 
is that one solitary regiment was embarked for manoeuvres. 
That is the truth. To embark 100,000 soldiers you 
want hundreds and thousands of tons of transport. 
You might just as well talk of practising embarkii^ St. 
Paul's Cathedral in a penny steamer. (Laughter.) 
I have no doubt that equally siUy stories are current in 
Germany. I have no doubt that there is terror thov 
that the English Fleet will swoop down all of a sudden 
and gobble up the German Fleet. (Laughter.) These 
stories are not only silly — they are mischievous, very 
mischievous. (Hear, hear.) If Eve had not kept on 
looking at that apple (laughter) — and it was pleasant to 
the eyes — she would not have picked it, and we should 
not have been now bothered with clothes. (Loud 
laughter.) I was very nearly foi^etting something else 

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that the Pmick correspondent said. I put it in my pocket 
as I came away to read it out to you. He had been a wedc 
in the Channel Fleet and he had discussed everything, 
from the admiral down to the bluejacket. He does not 
say anything about that Midshipman Easy. " In one 
matter I found unanimity of admission. It was that in 
respect to the number of fighting ships, their armament, 
and general capacity the British Navy was never in so 
satisfactory a condition as it floats to-day." (Cheers.) 
So we let him off that yam about the 100,000 German 
troops. (Laughter.) 

III. — The House of Lords, November 16, 1915. 

Lord Fisher, rising from the cross-benches im- 
mediately before public business was called, said : — " I 
ask leave of your lordships to make a statement. Certain 
references were made to me in a speech delivered yesterday 
by Mr. Churchill. I have been 61 years in the service of 
my coimtry, and I leave my record in the hands of my 
countrymen. The Prime Minister said yesterday that 
Mr. Churchill had said one or two things which he had 
better not have said, and,that he necessarily and naturally 
left unsaid some things which will have to be said. I 
am content to wait. It is luifitting to make personal 
explanations affecting national interests when my 
country is in the midst of a great war." 

Iiord Fisher, having delivered his brief statement, 
immediately left the House. 

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IV.— Tka House op Lords, March 21, 1917. 

Lord Fisher addressed the House of Lords. 

Immedutely prayers were over he rose from a seat on 
one of the cross-benches. He said : — 

" With your Lordships* permission, I desire to make a 
personal statement. When our country is in great 
jeopardy, as she now is, it is not the time to tarnish great 
reputations, to asperse the dead, and to discover our 
supposed weaknesses to the enemy ; so I shall not discuss 
the Dardanelles Reports — I shall await the end of the war, 
when all the truth can be made known." 


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Sir William Allan, MJP., with the tono of • 
Hercules and the voice of a bull and the affectionate 
heart of Mary Magdalene, did not know Latin, and he 
asked me what my motto meant : 

" Fiat justitta — mat ctelum." 
I had sent it to him when he was malignantly attacking 
me because, as Controller of the Navy, I had introduced 
the water-tube boiler. Sir William Allan was himself a 
boiler-maker, and he had to scrap most of his plant 
because of this new type of boiler. 

I said the translation was : " Do right, and damn the 

This motto has stood me in good stead, for by attending 
to it I fought a great battle in a righteous cause with Lord 
Salisbury, when he was Prime Minister, and conquered. 
I have related this elsewhere. Years after. Lord Salis- 
bury, in remembrance of this, recalled me from being 
Commander-in-Chief in America to be British delegate 
at the First Peace Conference at The Hague in 1899, 
and from thence I went as Commander-in-Chief of the 
Mediterranean Fleet. 

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While I was in conunand of the Mediterranean Fleet, 
(torn 1899 to 1902, when I became Second Sea Lord of 
the Admiralty, I arranged to have lectures for the officers 
of the Fleet. I extract now from the notes of n^ lectures 
some points which may be of general interest, as illus- 
trating the new strategy and tactics necessitated by the 
change from wind to steam. 

After setting forth a few of the problems which would 
have to be solved in sea-fighting under the new conditions, 
the lecturer went on to elaborate the themes from such 
rough notes as I give here of the principal ideas. 

All Officers without exception should be unceasingly 
occupied in considering the various solutions of these 
problems, as who can tell who will be in command after 
the first five minutes of a close engagement, whether in 
an individual ship or in command of the whole Fleet I 
Otherwise we may have a stampede like that of riderless 
horses I The Captain or Admu^ is hors de conAat, and 
the next Officer, and, perhaps, the next, and the next 
don't know what to do when moments mean victory or 
defeat 1 

" The man who hesitates is lost 1 " and so it will be 
with the Fleet if decision is wanting I 

" Time, Twiss, time is everyming I " said Nelson 
^peaking to General Twiss when he waa chasing the 
French Fleet under Villeneuve to the West Indies) ; 
" a quarter of an hour may mean the difference between 
Victory and Defeat ! " 

This was in sailing days. Now it will be quarters of 
a minute, not quarters of an hour I 

It is said to have been stated by one of the most eminent 
of living men, that sudden war becomes daily more 
probable because public opinion is becoming greater in 
power, and that popular emotion, once fainy aroused, 

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sweeps away the barriers of calm deliberation, and is 
deaf to the voice of reason. 

Besides cultivating the faculty of Quick Decision and 
consequent rapid action, we miist cultivate Rashness. 

Napoleon was asked the secret of victory. He replied, 
" L'audace, Vaudace, Paudace, Un^ours Paudace ! " 

There is a rashness which in Peace is Folly, but which 
in War is Prudence, and there are risks tnat must be 
undertaken in War which are Obligatory, but which in 
peace would be Criminal I 

As in War, so in the preparation for War, Rashness 
must have its place. We must also reflect how apt we are 
to suppose that the enemy will fit himself into our plans I 

The first successful blow on either side will probably 
determine the final issue in sea-fighting. Sustained 
physical energy will be the required great attribute at 
that time for those in command as well as those who 
administer. ColUngwood wrote two years before Tra- 
falgar, when blockading Rochefort — and Nelson then off 
Toulon, Pellew off Ferrol, and CornwalUs off Brest — 
that " Admirals needed to be made of iron ! " The pressure 
then will test the endurance of the strongest, and the 
rank of Admiral confers no immunity from the operation 
of the natural law of Anno Domini ! Nelson was 39 yean 
old at the Battle of the Nile, and died at 47. What is 
our average age of those actively responsible for the 
control, mobilisation, and command of our Fleets ? As 
age increases, audacity leaks out and caution comes in. 

An instant offensive is obligatory. Mahan truly says:~ 

" The assimiption of a simple defensive in war is ruin. 
War, once declared, must be w^ed offensively, agsres- 
sively. The enemy must not be fended off, but smitten 
down. You may then spare him every exaction, relin- 
(]uish every gain. But till down he must be struck 
incessantly and remorselessly."^ 

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All will dei>end on the instant start, the sudden blow I 
Napoleon again, " Frt^ipes vite et frt^pex fort I " That 
was the whole of his orders. 

The question of annament is all-important I 

If we have the advantage of speed, which is the first 
desideratum in every class of fighting vessel {Battlesh^ 
included), then, and then only, we can choose our distance 
for fighting. If we can choose our distance for fighting, 
then we can choose our armament for fighting I But how 
in the past has the armament been chosen ? Do we 
arrange the armament to meet the proposed mode of 
fighting ? Doesn't it sometimes look like so many of each 
sort, as if you were peopling the Ark, and wanted re- 
presentatives of ail cahbres ? 

Whoever hits soonest and oftenest toiU mn ! 

" The effectiveness of a fighting weapon," wrote 
Mahan, " consists more in the methml of its use and in 
the practised skill of the human element that wields it 
than in the material perfection of the weapon itself. The 
sequel of a long period of peace is a demondisation of 
id»ls. Those who rise in peace are men of formality 
and routine, cautious, inoffensive, safe up to the limits 
of their capacity, supremely conscientious, punctilious 
about everything but what is essential, yet void altogether 
of initiative, impulse and originality. 

" This was tne difference between Hawke and Mat- 
thews. Hawke represented the spirit of war, the ardour, 
the swift initiative, the readiness of resource, the im- 
patience of prescription and routine, without which no 
great things are done 1 Matthews, the spirit of peace, the 
very reverse of all this I " 

Peace brings with it the reign of old men. 

The sacred fire never biutit in Collingwood. Nelson, 
with the instinct of genius, intended the Fleet to anchor, 
turning the very dangers of the shoals of Trafa^ar into 
a security. ColUi^^wood, simply a naval machine, and 
never having been his own master all his life, and not 


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being a genius, thou^t a shoal was a thing to be avoided, 
and, consequently, wrecked the ships imfitted to cope 
with a gale, and so to weather these snoals I CoUingwood 
ought to have had the moon given him for his crest, for 
allliis glory was reflected from Nelson, the sun of glory I 
CoUingwood was an old woman 1 

History is a record of exploded ideas. In what sense ? 
Fighting conditions are all altered. The wind formerly 
determined the course of action ; now it is only the mind 
of man. One man and the best man is wanted — not a 
fossil ; not a careful man. Fleets were formerly days 
coming into action, now only minutes. 

Two Fleets can now be ^hting each other in twenty 
minutes from first seeing each other's smoke. 

Formerly sea battles were Sailors' battles, now they 
are Officers*. 

At Trafalgar, Nelson was walking up and down the 
Quarter-Dec^ and havii^ a yam with his Fl^ Captain, 
Hardy, at the very zenith of the Action I k was the 
common sailors only who were then at work. How 
different now I The Admiral everytftim t 

Now, the different phases of a Naval War are as 
capable of as exact a demonstration as a proposition in 
Euclid, because steam has annihilated wind and sea. W« 
are now trained to a higher standard, and the arts of 
strategy and tactics have accordingly been immensely 
magnified. Make an initial mistake m strategy or tactics, 
and then it may be said of them as of women by Con- 

" Hell has no fury like a woman scom'd." 

The last place to defend England will be the Shores of 

*rhe Frontiers of England are the Coasts of the Enemy. 
We ought to be there five minutes before war breaks out. 

Naval Supremacy once destroyed is destroyed for ever. 
Carthage, Spain, Holland, the great commercial nations 



of the past, had the sea wrested from them, and then thnr 

A successful Mercantile Marine leads to a successful 
War Navy. 

It is solely owing to our command of the sea that we 
have been able to build up'our magnificent Empire. 

Admiral Mahan's most famous passage is : — 

" The world has never seen a more impressive demon> 
stration of the influence of Sea Power upon its history. 
Those far-distant, storm-beaten ships of Nelson, upon 
which the Grand Army never looked, stood between it 
and the dominion of the World." 

" Sbcrbct and Sbcrbtivbness." 
There arc three types of Secrecy ; — 

I. The Ostrich. 
II. The Red Box. 
III. The Real Thing. 

I. Hie ostrich buries his head in the sand of the 
desert \rfien pursued by his enemy, and because he can't 
see the enemy concludes the enemy can't see him I Such 
is the secrecy of the secretive and detestable habit which 
bides from our own officers what is known to the world 
in other Navies. 

II. The secrecy of the Red Box is that of a distinguished 
Admiral who, with great pomp, used to have his red 
despatch box carried before him (like the umbrella of an 
Afncan King^, as containing the most secret plans ; but 
one day, the dox being unfortunately capsized and burst 
open, the only contents that fell out were copies of 
*' La Vie Parisienne " 1 

Such, it is feared, was the secrecy of those wonderftU 
detailed plans for war we hear of in the past as havii^ 
been secreted in secret drawers, to be brought out " when 
the time comes," and when no one has any time to study 

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them, supposing, that is,they ever existed ; and, remember, 
it is detailed attention to minutiae and die consideration 
of trifles which spells success. 

III. There is the legitimate secrecy and secretiveness 
of hiding from your dearest friend the moment and the 
nature of your rush at the eftemy, and which of all the 
variety of operations you have previously practised with the 
Fleet you will bring mto play T But all your Captains will 
instantly know your mind and intentions, for you will 
hoist the signal or spark the wireless message, Plan A, 
or Plan B .... or Plan Z ! 

" After I have made known my intentions," began 
Nelson's last order ; and it expressed the experience of 
a hundred battles — that the Second in Command (and 
in these days it may well be amplified into the individual 
officers in command) are to fulfil the spirit of the peace 
manoeuvre teaching, and assist by the teaching in carmng 
out the meaning of brief signals to the destruction of the 
enemy's Fleet. The secret of success hes in the first 
part of the sentence : " After I have made knoton my 
intentions. " 

Confidence is a plant of slow growth. Long and 
constant assodation of ships of a Fleet is essential to 
success. A new-comer is often more dangerous than the 

An Army may be improvised in case of war, but not 
a Navy. 

Immense importance of constant readiness at all times. 
A Fleet always ready to go to sea at an hour's notice is a 
splendid national life preserver I Here a>mes in the 
water-tube boiler 1 Wiuiout previous notice or even an 
inkling, we have been ready to start in one hour with 
water-tube boiler ships. You can't exaggerate this 1 
One bucket of water ready on the spot in the shape of an 
instantly ready Fleet will stop the conflagration of war 
which all the Fire Brigades of the worlcT won't stop a 
little later on I Never forget that from the very nature of 


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sea fighting an initial Naval disaster is irretrievable, 
irreparable, eternal. Naval Colensos have no Paarde- 
ben;s I 

Suddetmen is the secret of success at sea, because 
suddenness is practicable, and remember that rashness 
may be the height of prudence. How veiy rash Nelson 
was at the Nile to go in after dark to fight the French 
Fleet with no chart of the shoals of AbouSr I 

But you must be sure of your Fleet and they must be 
sure of you I Every detail previously thought out. Trust 
no one I (My fnend, IVlaurice Boiirke, used to tell a 
story of the Yankee barber, who put up in his shop : 
" To trust is to bust, and to bust is hell I " which means 
" no credit given "). Make the very best of things as 
they are. Criminal to wait for something better. We 
strain at the gnat of perfection and swallow the camel of 

" The Great Silsnt Navt." 

The usual motto is " Silence " or " Deeds, not words," 
which you will see ornamenting some conspicuous place 
in a ^ip.^ It has been said by landsmen mat the most 
striking feature to them in a British man-of-war when at 
sea is the noiseless, ceaseless, sleepless, yet unobtrusive, 
energy that characterises everyone and everything on 
boara I If so, we sailors don't notice it, and it is the result 
of nature I Gales of wind, sudden fogs, immense speeds, 
the much multiplied dangers of collision and wreck from 
these terrific speeds, as m Destroyers and even in large 
ships, all these circumstances automatically react on ul 
on board and are nature's education by environment. 
There is no place for the unthinking or the lethargic. 
He is a positive danger I Every individual in a man-of- 
war has his work cut out 1 " Think and act for yourself " 

> These mottoes were punted up in my first ship, and I hav« h»d 
them in every ship I have commanaed lAaat, 

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is to be the motto of the future, not " Let us wait for 
orders ! " 

Such may be said of sea fights I No mountains delay 
us, and, as Scripture says, the way of a ship is trackless I 
The enemy will suddenly confront us as an Apparition I 
At every moment we must be ready 1 Can this be acquired 
by grown men F No I it is the force of habit. You must 
commence early. Our Nelsons and Benbows began liie 
sea life when they first put their breeches onl The 
brother of the Black Prince Qohn of Gaunt) joined the 
Navy and was in a sea fight when he was lo years of age I 
Far exceeding anything known in history does our future 
Trafalgar depend on promptitude and rapid decision, and 
on every eventuality having been foreseen by those in 
command. But these attributes cannot be acquired late 
in life, nor by those who have lived the life of cabbages f 
So begin early and work continuously. Then if there is 
war your opportunitv miist come I Like Kitchener, you 
will Uien walk over the cabbages t 

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directed against those who assailed my principles of 
(i) The f^hting efficiency of the Fleet, (2) Its instant 
readiness for war. 

Admiraltt Policy : Replies to Criticisms. 

[In the autumn of 1906 there was considerable criticism 
of the Government's naval policy, particularly in the 
daily and weddy Press. Just before the dissolution of 
Mr. Balfour's administration, Lord Cawdor, then First 
Lord, had issued a memorandum on " Admiralty Work 
and Progress," dated November 30th, 1905, in which 
it was stated that " At the present time strategic re- 
quirements necessitate an output of four large armoured 
ships annually." In July, 1906, however, it was 
announced in Parliament that only three battleships 
would be included in the current programme, the reason 
for the abandonment of the fourth ship being that there 
was a temporary cessation of warship builcCng on the 
Continent caused by the advent of the " Dreacmought " 
and the " Invincibles." Coming in the first year of 
office of the new Liberal administration, however, the 
reduction in the British programme aroused genuine 
disquiet among certain people, and by others was utilised 
for a poUticaf attack on the Government, who were 
alleged to be jeopardising the security of the country. 
In addition, there was another body of opinion strongly 
adverse to certain features in the design of the new 
" Dreadnoughts." The following notes were prepared 
by Lord Fisher at the time for use by Lord Tweedmouth 
and Mr. Edmund Robertson (afterwards Lord Lochee), 
who were then First Lord and Parliamentary Secretary 

The most brilliant preacher of our generation has said 
what a stimulus it is to have always some friends to save 

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us from that " Woe unto you when all men shall speak 
well of you " 1 When criticism goes, life is done t 
You must squeeze the fragrant leaf to get the delicious 
scent t Hence, it may be truly said that the Bou'd of 
Admiralty should just now heartily shake hands with 
themselves, because Korah, Dathan, and Abiram (in 
the shape of three Retrograde Don Quixotes) are 
trying to raise a rebellion, but the earth will now open 
and swallow them all up quick as in the days of Moses. 
They and all their company, with their small battleships 
and their slow speeds, and their invasion fright and foreign 
shipbuilding houses of cards are each and all capable of 
absolute pulverisation I Why people don't Uugh at it 
all is the wonder I Here, for instance, is a military 
correspondent lecturing the Board of Admiralty on types 
of ships ; and Admirals, whose names were bywords 
of inefficiency and ineptitude when they were afloat, 
and who never — one single one of them — left anything 
better than they found it, are being seriously quoted by 
serious magazines and serious newspapers as " a most 
distinguished Admiral," etc., etc. " These prophets 
prophesy falsely and the people love to have it so," 
as Jeremiah says I This is because of the inherent 
pessimistic British instinct I 

Perhaps the most laughable and silly emanation of diese 
Rip Van Winkles is the outcry against large ships and 
high speeds, and an Admiral has gone so for as to resort 
to mathemAtics and trigonometrical absurdities to prove 
that slow speed and 6-inch gum are of primary import- 
ance in a sea fight 1 1 1 Archbishop Whately dealt 
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with a similar critic by a celebrated jeu iTaprit entitled 
" Historic Doubts relative to Napoleon Buonaparte." The 
Archbishop by a process of fallacious reasoning demon- 
strated with all the exactitude of a mathematical problem 
the impossibility of the existence of such a person as 
Buonaparte ! But as someone has well said, if these strange 
oddities can convert our enemies (the Germans) to the 
priceless advantage of slow ships and small guns they are 
patriots in disguise, and Providence is employing them 
(as it employs worms and other such things) in assisting 
to work out the unfailing and invincible supremacy 
of the British Navy. 

But to say no more — the plain man sees that it is of 
vital importance that we should obtain the highest 
possible speed in order that, in face of emergencies on 
the south or east or west of the British Isles, we may 
be able to concentrate adequate Naval Force with as 
little delay as possible, and that had the British Admir- 
alty held the opinions expressed by " the Blackwood 
Balaam " our battleships would still be steammg at 
about 10 knots an hour, because he must rememb« 
that the progress which has been made from lo knots 
ta 22 knots (as attained in " Dreadnought " at deep, or 
war load draught) has been gradual, and at any period 
during this progression it was quite open to other 
Balaams to retard the action of the Admiralty by pointing 
out that the slight gain in speed which has been chron- 
icled year by year in battleships was really not worth 
the price which was being paid for it I But, Blessed 
be God I In this and all other criticisms of Admiral^ 



Pdicy the public pulse is totally unaffected, and die 
reputation of the Admiralty unlowered. 

For 12 months past not a single battleship has been 
laid down in Europe, and this simply and solely owing 
to the dramatic appearance of the " Dreadnought," 
which upset all the calculations in Foreign Admiralties 
and deserved the calculated letter written by Lord 
Selbome to the Committee on Designs. The Admiralty 
has done more than all the Peace party with all their 
dinners to arrest the contest for Sea Power I 

In the criticisms we are dealing with, " Party " as 
usual has come before " Patriotism," but the Sea Lords 
can, each one of them, confidently say, with the poet's 
version of a patriot's motto, 

" Sworn to no party, of no sect am I, 
I can't be silent and I will not lie," 

and so the Sea Lords have no desire to avoid any odium 
the Tory papers^ may be pleased to bring upon them. 
There is undoubted authority for stating that a skilfully 
organised " Fleet Street " conspiracy aided by Naval 
Malcontents is endeavouring to excite the British public 
against the Board of Admiralty, but it has fallen flat. 
There is, however, a very serious danger in the 

> Onb Sample out of M&mv. — " Lord Tw«edmouth and Ur. 
Robertson, having tasted blood in thdr reduction of thb vear's Esti- 
mates, are about to strike a blow at the vital efficiency oi the Navy. 
But what are we to think of the naval officers on the Admiralty Board, 
men who cannot plead the blindness and Ignorance of their civilian 
colleuues ? No one knows better than Sir John Fisher the real nature 
and the inevitable consequences of those acts to which he is a con- 
senting party. And we are not speaking at random when we assert 
that more than any one man, the responsibility and the guilt for those 
reductions lies at his door." (The Glob*. 2t S^. 1906.) 

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propagation of the view so ably combated by Sir C. 
Dilke in his speech at Coleford, Forest of Dean, on 
September 27th last, that this country requires a military 
force of 640,000 men I 

His comparison of Navy and Army expenditure is 
illuminating but has been totally ignored by the Press 
and the country. The " Fiery Cross " has been sent 
round to resuscitate the " Invasion Bogey." 

There has been for many years past a general feeling 
in this country that questions of international relation- 
ship and of national defence should be withdrawn as 
far as possible from the arena of party politics. Such 
divergences of opinion as must exist on these topics 
have no obvious connection with the divisions of our 
internal politics ; and it is surely legitimate to go further 
than this, and say that the main problems in these 
departments can be dealt with in such a way as to win 
the assent of every reasonable man, whatever his opinions 
may be on Trade Unionism or Elementary Education. 

At any rate successive Boards of Admiralty have for 
something like 20 years acted on the assumption — 
which has hitherto been justified — that their policy 
would be accepted by the public as based on a fully 
considered estimate of the requirements of national 
defence, and, if criticised (as it was bound to be from 
time to time), criticised on other than partisan grounds. 
Between the date of the Naval Defence Act and 1904 
the Navy Estimates were approximately trebled. The 
increase was continuous under four successive First 
Lords, and under both Liberal and Conservative Govem- 

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ments. In 1 904 the maximum of the curve of expenditure 
was reached, and the Navy Estimates be^an to decline, 
at first rapidly, under a Conservative Government, 
then more slowly, and in part subject to certain provisos, 
under the present Liberal Government. And this, it 
appears, is the moment chosen for the first considerable 
outbreak of political rancour in naval affairs since the 
modem Navy came into existence I 

It is, however, of such supreme importance to the 
Navy that the Admiralty Board should not be suspected 
of being governed in its decisions on matters of national 
defence by partisan considerations that it may be well 
to set out again, and very explicitly, what are the reasons 
which have led the Board to adopt the policy now 

Here we have to go back to first principles. It has 
become too much the fashion to employ the phrase 
" a two-Power standard " as a mere shibboleth. The 
principle this phrase embodies has been of the utmost 
value in the past, and is likely to be so in the future ; 
but if used unintelUgently at the present moment it 
merely gives the enemy cause to blaspheme. Great 
Britain must, it is agreed, maintain at all costs the 
command of the sea. Therefore we must be decisively 
stronger than any possible enemy. Who then is the 
possible enemy ? Ten years ^o, or even less, we should 
probably have answered, France and Russia in alliance- 
As they were then respectively the second and third 
naval Powers, the two-Power standard had an actuality 
which it has since lost. The United States and Ger- 

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many are competii^ for the second place which France 
has abeady almost yielded. Russia's fleet has practically 
disappeared. Japan's has sprung to the front rank. 
Of the four Powers which are primarily in question, 
Japan is our ally, France is our close friend, America 
is a kindred State with whom we may indeed have 
evanescent quarrels, but with whom, it is scarcely too 
much to say, we shall never have a parricidal war. llie 
other considerable naval Powers are Italy and Austria, 
of whom we are the secular friends, and whose treaty 
obligations are in the highest degree unlikely to force 
them into a rupture with us which could in no possible 
way serve their own interests. 

There remains Germany. Undoubtedly she is a 
possible enemy.' While there is no specific cause of 
dispute there is a general commercial and— on the 
German side — political rivalry which has unfortunately 
but indisputably caused bad blood between the two 
countries. For the moment, it would be safe to build 
against Germany only. But we cannot build for the 
moment : the Board of Admiralty are the trustees of 
future generations of their countrymen, who may not 
enjoy the same comparatively serene sky as ourselves. 
The ships we lay down this year may have their influence 
on the international situation twenty years hence, when 
Germany — or whoever our most likely antagonist may 
then be— may have the opportunity of the co-operation 
(even if only temporary) of another great naval Power. 
Hence a two-Power standard, rationally interpreted, is 

* This was written in October, 1906. 



by no means out of date. But it is not a rational inter- 
pretation to say that we must instantly lay down as many 
ships as any other two Powers are at this moment laying 
down. We must take long views ; we must be sure 
what other Powers are doing ; we must take the average 
of their efforts, and average our own efforts in response. 

Now this matter of averaging the shipbuilding, of 
equalising the programme over a number of years, 
deserves further consideration. Some Powers, notably 
Germany, attempt to achieve thb end by creating long 
statutory programmes. The British Admiralty has aban- 
doned the idea since the Naval Defence Act. For us, 
in fact, it would be a thoroughly vicious system. For 
a Power which is tryii^; to " set the pace," and ^/rbich is 
glad to avoid annual discussion of the financial aspect 
of the question, it, no doubt, has its advantages. But 
Great Britain does not build to a naval strength that 
can be determined a priori ; she builds simply and soldy 
to maintain the command of the sea against other 
Powers. For this end the Admiralty must have its 
hands free to determine from year to year what the 
shipbuilding requirements are. But, again, this does 
not mean that our efforts must be spasmodic, that be- 
cause foreign Powers lay down six ships one year and 
none the next, therefore we must do the same. For 
administrative reasons, which should be obvious, and 
which in any case this is not the place to dilate upon* 
it is very necessary that shipbuilding should approximate 
year by year, so far as practicable, to some normal 
figure, and that increases or decreases, when th^ become 

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necessary, should be made gradually. This double 
principle, of determining the programme ^m year to 
year, and yet averaging the number of ships built over a 
number of years, has to be firmly grasped by anyone who 
desires to understand the Admiralty shipbuilding policy. 

With this preamble we are in a position to discuss 
the actual situation. And first we have to consider 
what is the existing relative strength of Great Britain 
and the other naval Powers. About this there is really 
no difference of opinion — ^British naval supremacy was 
never better assured than at the present moment. Even 
admitting the combination of two of the three next naval 
Powers (France, Germany, and the United States) to be 
conceivable, it is certain that any two of them would 
hesitate to attack us, and it is more than probable that 
if they did they would be defeated, even without the 
assistance of our Japanese allies. The alleged alarm as 
to our naval strength is therefore admittedly in regard 
to the future, not in r^^rd to the present. And here 
(to digress for a moment) we may remark that agitations 
have occurred in earlier years when it was supposed 
that some foreign Power or combination of Powers was 
actually in a position to sweep us off the Channel, but 
never before have we been invited to panic by prophecy. 
Is there not something slightly absurd in alarm — not 
calculation, for that is justifiable enough, but alarm — 
about our position in 1920 ? At any rate, it is clear that 
it is the future which we are called on to consider. 

In this connection two facts have to be remembered : 
first, that we start in a position of security, and need 

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therefore be in no undue haste to build more ships ; 
seamdfy, that toe are on the threshold of a neto era in naval 
construction, and can therefore not rest content with 
the advantage which we secured in an era which is 
passing away. The problem need not be complicated 
by a somewhat futile attempt to bring the existing and 
the new ships of our own and foreign navies to a common 
denominator ; we must build new ships to meet new 
ships, always, however, remembering that until the new 
ships are in commission we have got plenty of the old 
ones to fi^t with. 

But here it is really impossible to avoid commenting 
on the gross insincerity of some recent attacks on the 
Admiralty. It was no doubt only to be expected that 
the four ships of the Cawdor memorandum, which 
were explicitly stated to be a maximiun, should always 
be quoted as a minimum by anyone who wishes to 
belabour the present Board. But there is a further 
point which the convenient shortness of the journalistic 
memory has suffered to be overlooked. When the 
Cawdor memorandum was issued, it was generally 
(though wrongly) assumed that only two of the four 
ships would be battleships, and two " armoured cruisers." 
And at that time the pubUc had certainly no idea tohat 
the " Ijtvindble " Fast Battle Cruiser type was like, 
with its 6 knots superiority of speed to everything afloat, 
and the biggest guns alive. The " Invincibles '* are, 
as a matter of fact, perfectly fit to be in line of battle 
with the battle fleet, and could more correctly be described 
at battleshipi which^ thanks to their speed, can drive any- 

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tftit^ e^loat off the seas. But this was not known, and 
the calculations generally made in the Press added only 
two units per annum to our batde fleet. Yet there 
was no outcry ; that was reserved to a later date, when 
it was beginning to be understood that the " Invincibles " 
could be reckoned side by side with the " Dreadnought,'* 
and it had been announced that three new " Dread- 
noughts," instead of two, were to be laid down this 
winter. Surely the ways of the party journalist are 
past finding out. 

In this connection it may be well also to make some 
observations on the diminution by the authority of the 
Board of programmes of shipbuilding already approved 
by Parliament. The allegation that there is anythii^ 
unconstitutional in the procedure may be left to the 
constitutional lawyer to pulverise. Probably all that is 
usually meant by the statement is that it is desirable 
to let Parliament know of the change in the programme 
as soon as convenient after it has been decided, and to 
this there would usually be no possible objection. But 
the idea that, because Parliament has voted a certain 
sum of money for the current year's programme, and 
certain commitments for future years (a much more 
important matter), therefore the Board is bound to build 
ships it really does not want, is not only pernicious, 
but also ridiculous in the extreme. The only legitimate 
ground for complaint, if any, would be that the Board 
had misled Parliament in the first instance by over- 
estimating the requirements. The Board are &ced 
each summer with the necessity of saying what they 



expect to have to lay down i8 months later. This, 
of couree, is prophecy. Generally it is found to be 
pretty accurate, but the advent of the new era in ship- 
building (which is principally due to the lessons of the 
only big naval war of modern times) has made prophecy 
more than usually difficult. Moreover, if the matter 
is at all in doubt, the prophet has special inducements 
to select the higher rather than the lower figure. In- 
crease of a programme during a given year will involve 
a supplementary estimate with all its accompanying 
inconveniences. If on the other hand it is found that 
the original programme was unnecessarily extensive, 
it is a comparatively simple matter to cut it down. It 
is best of course to have the right number of new ships 
in the Navy Estimates ; but it is next best to have a 
number in excess of that ultimately required, which 
can be pruned as requbite. 

Let us repeat : sufficient unto the year is the ship- 
building thereof. Panic at the present time is stupid. 
The Board of Admiralty is not to be frightened by 
paper programmes. They will cautiously do all that 
they judge necessary to secure the existing naval suprem- 
acy of this country : the moment that is threatened they 
will throw caution to the winds and outbuild our rivals 
at all costs. 

H.M. Ships " Dbbadnought " and " Invinciblb." 

The accompanying papers^ contain arguments in 
support of the " Dreadnought " and " Invincible." 

* Not npiinted. 

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The features of these novel designs, which have been 
most adversely criticised, are : — 

1. The unifonn Big Gun armament. 

2. The great increase in speed. 

It b admitted that strategically speed is of very great 
importance. It enables the fleet or fleets possessing 
it to concentrate at any desired spot as quickly as possible, 
and it must therefore exercise an important influence 
on the course of a naval war, rapid concentration being 
one of the chief factors of success. 

Many adverse critics of high speed maintain that it 
is the weapon of the weaker Fleet, the only advantage 
conferred being the ability to refuse an action by nmning 
away : two cases may be cited from the actions of the 
late war in the East showing the fallacy of this argument 
and that the Japanese successes were solely due to a 
command of speed. 

In the battle of the loth Ai^vst, 1904, after the 
preliminary manoeuvres, the Russian Admiral turned to 
the eastward at 2.30 p.m. to escape to VladivostcA. 
The Japanese Fleet was then on the starboard quarter 
of the Russian and practically out of range. Captain 
Pakenham, the British Naval Attache, who was on 
board Admiral Togo's flagship^ in his report, states 
that the " * Tzaesarevitch ' (leading the Russian line) 
was almost out of sight." A slightly superior speed 
in the Russian line would have ensured their escape, 
but the excess of speed lay with the Japanese and they 
slowly drew up into range and reopened the action ; 

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but it was late in the evening before they drew far enough 
ahead to concentrate a heavy fire on the leader of the 
Russian line and so break up their formation. When 
this was accomplished it was nearly dark and the Russians, 
though thrown into confusion and beaten, were not 
destroyed, for the approaching darkness and the de- 
stroyer threat necessitated the Japanese Battle Fleet 
hauling off, yet the retreat to Vladivostok was pre- 

A higher q)eed in the Japanese line would have wrought 
confusion to the Russians earlier in the day, and probably 
have allowed a sufficient period of daylight for their 
total destruction. 

Again. At the opening of the Battle of the Sea of 
Japan in May, the Japanese Fleet, due to skilful hand- 
ling, held a conunandii^ position, giving a concentration 
of fire on the heads of the Russian lines. Had they 
not possessed superior speed, the Japanese would 
rapidly have lost this advant^e, as the Russians turned 
away to starboard and compelled the Japanese to move 
along a circle of larger radius ; their greater speed 
enabled the Japanese to maintain their advantage and 
so continue the concentration of fire on the Russian van 
until so much damage had been infiicted that the 
Russians lost all order and were crushed. 

These, therefore, are two of the most convincii^; 
instances that could now be given, where speed was of 
overwhelmii^ tactical value to the victorious side, and 
such evidence is unanswerable and is a justification of 
the speeds adopted in the designs of the new ships. 

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Defects and Repairs 

[Lord Fisher found fruitful scope for his reforming 
enei^ in the Royal dockyards, and was very keen dn 
making them efficient in working as well as economical 
in administration. The former tendency had been for 
ships to accumulate defects until they went into dock, 
when their stay was accordingly prolonged, and the 
longer they were in dockyard hands the more work was 
provided for the officials and workmen, so that there 
was a double incentive to spend money. In the following 
memorandum, Lord Fisher insists that this drain upon 
the limited funds available for the Navy must stop; and 
explains- how the Admiralty meant to discriminate 
between vessels which it was essential to keep thoroughly 
efficient and others which were not worth any.^or so 
much, money for repairs. Elsewhere in this volume 
Lord Fisher has shown how he got rid of 6,000 redundant 
dockyard workmen.] 

The head has got to wag the tail. The tail sometimes 
now wags the head. It is for the Admiralty, and the 
Admiralty alone, to decide whether, how, or tchen the 
defects and repairs of the Fleet are to be taken in hand. 

The sole governing condition is what the Admiralty 
require for fighting purposes ! It is desirable to put an 
extreme case to accentuate this : — 

In the secrets of Admiralty Fighting Policy undesir- 
able to make known to our enemies there are certain 
vessels never going to be used for actual fighting, but 
they serve an extremely useful purpose for subsidiary 
purposes. In such vessels there are defects and repairs 
of a particular character that might stand over till 
Doomsday I whibt there are other vessels where only 

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defects affecting purely se^oii^ and actually direct 
fighting efficiency Bhould be attended to. All this 
entirely depends on our probable enemy and may vary 
from time to time, and the sole judge can only be the 
Admiralty. But what it is feared now obtains is a blind 
rushing at all defects and repairs of all kinds and classes 
in all vessels. It is perfecdy natural that the Commander- 
in-Chief and Admirals Superintendent may wish for 
the millennium of having idl their vessels perfect— but 
this cannot be. What does it lead to ? Extreme local 
pressure accentuated by Parliamentary action to enter 
more Dockyard workmen. What does this mean ? It 
means in some recent cases that practically the upkeep 
of three cruisers is swallowed up in pay to Dockyard 
workmen I No — the Admiralty Policy is sound, con- 
sistent and irrefutable, which is never to exceed the 
normal nimiber of Dockyard workmen as now fixed 
by the recent Committee, and have such a great margin 
of Naval strength — such as we now possess — as admits 
of a leisurely and economical refit of ships without 
extravagant overtime or ineificient hustling fA wot^. 
Therefore, what it comes to is this : — The Admiralty 
decide what vessels they require first and what defects 
and repairs in those vesseb are most material, and they 
give orders accordingly. It is ru>t the responsibility of 
the local authorities at all to say that this vessel or that 
vessel must be complied at once,for,as before-mentioned, 
it may be that in the Admiralty scheme of fighting those 
vessels are not required at all. 
The Controller has great difficulties to contend with 
113 I 

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because he has not the free hand of a private employer 
who can discharge or enter men just as he requires. 
To get rid of a Dockyard workman involves agitation 
in every direction — ^in Parliament, at the Treasury and 
locally, and even Bishops throw themselves into the 
fray, like the Bidiop of Winchester at Portsmouth, 
instead of looking after his own disorganised and mutin- 
ous Established Church. There is now a plethora of 
shipwrights at Chatham, because the Treasury will not 
allow their transfer to other yards, and a paucity of 
boilermakers because unwanted men occupy their places, 
and the scandal exists of men being entered at Devonport 
with men having no work at Chatham. But, of course, 
this is one of the blessings of Parliamentary Government, 
Treasury Control, and a Free Press ! 

Where the special influence of the Commander-in- 
Chief is desired by the Admiralty is to bring htSon 
them cases where defects have not been dealt with in 
the initial stages by the ship's artificers and so allowed 
to increase as to necessitate Dockyard intervention. 
Such cases would be drastically dealt with by the 
Admiralty if only they could be informed of them, but 
there is an amiable desire to avoid severe punishments, 
and the dire result is that the zealous and efficient are 
on the same footing as the incompetent and the careless 
who get more leave and time with their friends because 
their vessels are longer in Dockyard hands. 

It is desired to give prominence to the following 
facts : — It is a matter of everyday occurrence that vessels 
come home from Foreign stations, often immense 

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distances, as from China or Australia, and are inspected 
by the Commander-in-Chief on arrival home and 
reported thoroughly efficient, and praise is given by the 
Admiralty accordingly, and the full-power steam trial 
is conducted with great care, and the mere (mA of the 
vessel having steamed home those thousands of miles 
is itself a manifest evidence of her propelling machinery 
being efficient, and yet instantly after paying off we are 
asked to believe that such a vessel instantly drops down 
to a totally incapable condition of either seagoing or 
fighting efficiency, by our being presented with a bill 
of thousands upon thousands of pounds. 

The attention of the Commanders-in-Chief of the 
Home Ports and of the Adnurals Superintendent will 
be ^ecially drawn to a new series of instructions which 
will specifically detail their responsibility in carrying 
out the orders of the Admiralty in r^ard to defects 
and repairs. It is admitted that no comprehensive 
statement has as yet been issued as to the order and 
urgency in which both Fleet and Dockyard labour 
should be applied. 

This statement is now about to be issued — it is based, 
and can only be based, on the knowledge of what vessels 
are most required for war at that particular tune, and so 
must emanate direct from the Admiralty, \dio alone can 
decide on this matter. For instance, at this present 
moment there are vessels, even in the first line as some 
might suppose, which would not be employed until the 
last resort, whilst there are others almost believed to 
be out of the fighting cat^ory which under certain 

ZZ5 I 2 

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present conditions might be required for the first blow. 
This fact came so notably into prominence some months 
since that it has led to the adoption of what may be 
termed the " sliding scale " of nucleus crews, with the 
Torpedo craft and Submarines at almost full comple- 
ment down to the vessels in " Special Reserve " with 
only a " skeleton " o'ew capable of raising steam periodi- 
cally and working only the heavy armament. So no 
local knowledge could determine from day to day whicb 
are the first vessels required. This is changing from 
day to day and tt is the duty of the necessarily vtry fea 
to determine the daily fighting requirements: The 
ideal is for only om to know, and the nearer this is 
adhered to the more likely are we to surprise our enemies. 

The Use of the Gunboat. 

[The notes and letters which follow were prepared by 
Lord Fisher in the course of his advocacy that the 
Navy Estimates and . the Service itself should not be 
saddled with establishments not directly contributing 
to the fighting efHciencv of the Pleet and its instant 
readiness for war. Such services, he ihaintained, not 
only reduced the sum of money available for the real 
work of the Navy, but constituted elements of weakness 
in the event of hostilities. Tlie first document concerns 
the maintenance of small craft on foreign stations, on 
which a mmiber of ** gunboats " were kept to fulfil 
duties for departments other than the Admiralty. Lord 
Fisher differentiates between vessels which the Board 
should rightly supply, and others which had no naval 
value but were retained for duties connected with the 
Foreign or Colonial Offices — ^for which, if necesaary, a 
proper fighting ship could be lent temporarily and uien 

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returned to her squadron. The second document deab 
with the Coas^uard, which no longer served the purpose 
of a reserve for the Navy, and miich had come to be 
mainly employed on duties connected with revenue, 
Ufe-aaving, etc., although paid for out of Navy Votes 
and employing Navy personnel. Thirdly, the Aom^ty 
letter on Observatories shows that heavy expense was 
borne upon naval funds for duties no longer necessary 
to the Royal Navy.] 

In the Cawdor memorandum of last year (1905) will 
be found an e:qneition of the Admiralty poli^ in this 
matter, and attention may particularly be drawn to the 
following passage : — 

" Gomboats, and all vessels of like class, have been 
gradually losing value except for de6nite purposes under 
special conditions. As £u: as this country is concerned, 
the very places consecrated as the sphere of gunboat 
activi^ are those remote &om the covering aid of lai^ 
ships. Strained relations may occur at the shcvtest 
notice ; the false security of the period of drifting 
imperceptibly into actual hostilities is proverbial, and 
the nervous dread of taking any action that might even 
be construed into mere precautionary measures of de- 
fence, which experience has shown to be one of the 
peculiar symptoms of such a period, is apt to deprive 
these small vessels of their last remaining chance of 
securi^ by not allowing them to bll back towards 
material support. The broadcast use of gunboats in 
peace tinu is a marked strategic weakness, and largo' 
vessels can generally do the work equally well, in &ct 
far better, for they really possess the stroigth necessary 

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to uphold the prestige of the flag they fiy, v^ereas the 
gunboat is merely an abstract symbol of the power of 
the nation, not a concrete embodiment of it. 

" It might be thought that the withdrawal of the 
small non-effective vessels and the grouping of fleets 
and squadrons at the strategic positions for war involved 
the loss of British prestige, and of the * Showing the 
Flag * (as it was termed). But the actual fact is that 
never before in naval history has there been a more 
universal display of sea power than during this year by 
this country. The Channel Fleet in the North Sea and 
Baltic receiving the courtesies of Holland, Denmark, 
and Crermany ; the Atlantic Fleet at Brest ; the Medi- 
terranean Fleet at Algiers ; the Fourth Cruiser Squadron, 
consisting of Ave powerful fighting vessels, now in the 
West Atlantic ; a powerful squadron of six of the finest 
armoured cruisers in the world visiting Lisbon, Canada, 
Newfoundland, and United States ; a squadron of 
cruisers, under a Commodore, proceeding from Labrador 
to Cape Horn and back by the coast of Africa, and two 
cruisers visiting the Pacific Coast and the adjacent 
islands ; the movements of the Cape Squadron and of 
the Eastern Fleet in China, Australia, and the ladian 
Ocean : so imposing and ubiquitous a display of the flag 
and of naval power has never before been attained by 
our own Navy." 

The statement goes on to explain the special circimi- 
stances — use in shallow inland waters, etc., etc., which 
alone are held by the Admiralty to justify the use of 




This policy is from time to time impugned by people 
who have no need to count the cost of the alternative 
policy. Doubtless it would be convenient, as a tem- 
porary emergency arises here or there over the sur&ce 
of the E^obe, if at that very spot some British cruiser or 
gunboat promptly appeared ready to protect British 
interests, or to sink in the attempt. Indeed, for some 
time thb was the ideal at which the Admiralty aimed. 
But since the redistribution of the Fleet the Empire 
has had to do without the ubiquitous gunboat, and, if 
the truth be told, scarcely seems to have missed it. 
There are one or two valuable cases in point. For a 
long time the Foreign Office, or rather the Ambassador 
at Constantinople, pressed for the restoration of the 
second stationnaire. The Admiralty sternly refused. 
The only noticeable result of this dangerous policy so 
far has been that the French have followed our example 
and withdrawn their second vessel. 

An even more remarkable case occurred in Uruguay. 
A poaching Canadian sealer had been captured by the 
Un^uayan authorities, and language was used as if 
the disruption of the Empire would follow a retiisal on 
the part of the Admiralty to Uberate her crew by force. 
For a time the Admiralty was practically in revolt 
t^;ainst H.M. Government, and then — everything blew 
over. The dispute was settled by diplomatic action and 
the local courts of law. 

The question of the small vessel for police duties will 
long be with us. Vice-Consuls and Resident Commis- 
sioners will, no doubt, continue to act on the great 

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prindple : When in doubt wire for a gunboat. The 
Foreign and Colonial Offices, to whom the dispatch of 
a gunboat means no more than persuading a gentleman 
in Whitehall to send a telegram saying she is to go, will 
probably never quite realise why the gentleman should 
be so perverse as to refuse. But the matter is really 
now a " chose jug^ " ; the Admiralty battle has been 
fought and won, and it only remains for the Admiralty 
to adhere to its principles and decline to give way 
simply for the sake of a quiet life. 

Coast Guard 

Jufu. X906. 
The Coast Guard Service was transferred from the 
control of the Commissioners of Customs to that of the 
Admiralty by the Coast Guard Service Act, 1856, in 
order to make better provision for — 

(i) The defence of the coasts of the realm ; 
(ii) The more ready manning of His Majesty's 
Navy in case of war or sudden emergency ; 
(iii) The protection of the Revenue ; 

and there is little doubt that at that time the Coast 
Guard force was required for these three purposes. 

Since that date, however, these requirements have 
been greatly modified by the great developments that 
have taken place in steam, in electricity, and generally 
in the conduct of Naval warfare, and also as regards 
the inducements and facilities for smuggling. 

It is now considered that about 170 War Signal and 

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Wireless Telegraphy Stations in the United Kingdom 
•re sufficient to give warning of the approach of an 
enemy's ships, and that, as far as the use of the Coast 
Guard for Coast Defence is concerned, the remaining 
530 Stations and their personnel are quite unnecessary. 

As an Active Service force the Coast Guard is far 
from fidfUJing modem fighting regutreTtients, which are so 
exacting that a man's efficiency depends vpon his beit^ 
continuously associated toith highly technical duties on 
board skip, and en^loyment in the Coast Guard (even 
with the arranged periodical traimng in the Fleet) is found 
to be inconsistent with these requirements. 

Again, as a Reserve, though it fulfib the requirements 
of such a force, yet its cost (largely due to the heavy 
expense of housing the men and their families) is out 
of all proportion to that at which the efficient R(^ 
Fleet Reserve can now be maintained. 

The Coast Guard being treated as an Active Service 
force in the Estimates, the nimibers are included in the 
number of men voted for the Fleet, and help to make 
up the total of 129,000 ; but as the 4,000 Coaat Guard 
men are appropriated for duties away ^m the chief 
Naval ports, they are not available for the ordinary work 
of the Fleet, and the peace resources are correspondingly 
reduced, while the extra charges for the Coast Guard 
tend largely to increase the expense of maintaining the 
Active Service force. 

If, on the other hand, the Coast Guard be treated as 
a Reserve only, the expense is still more disproportionate, 
as, in comparison with the small retainers, charges for 


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a week's annual drill and small prospective pension, 
v^ch make up the whole expense entailed in the main- 
tenance of the Royal Fleet Reserve, there are the Full 
Pay, Victualling, Housing, and numerous miscellaneous 
allowances and charges of a permanent force maintained 
in small units under the most expensive conditions. 

Therefore, the maintenance of the Coast Guard by 
the Admiralty not only entails a reduction of the number 
of highly-trained active service ratings in the Fleet at 
sea, but also an unnecessarily large expenditure on a 

As regards the use of the Coast Guard for the 
protection of the. Revenue, the arrangements made 
when the Coast Guard was transferred to the control of 
the Admiralty might now be considerably modified, A 
large proportion of the coast of the United Kingdom is 
still patrolled nightly by the Coast Guard as a precaution 
against smuggling, but looking to the increase in popula- 
tion and the number of towns and villages round the 
coasts, the development of telegraphic communication, 
and the great reduction in the inducements to smuggling, 
this service seems to be no longer required ; and some 
other adequate arrangement for the protection of the 
Revenue might be made by a small addition to the 
present Customs Force, assisted by the local Police, in 
addition to the watch still kept at those Coast Guard 
Stations which would be maintained as Naval Signal 

Even in the cases in which the existii^ Coast Guard 
may be considered to afford valuable protection to the 

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Revenue, it must be remembered that in case of War 
or for Great Manceuvres, the men would be withdrawn 
to the Fleet from all stations except the Naval War 
Signal Stations. 

In any case the employment of highly-trained seamen 
to perform simple pohce duties on shore cannot be 
justified, and the eiqKnse is much greater than it would 
be were a civilian force to be employed. 

Certain other duties, principally in connection with 
life-saving and wrecks, under the Board of Trade, have 
also been undertaken by the Coast Guard ; but these» 
however valuable, do not constitute a raison d'itre for 
the Coast Guard, and it is quite feasible to make adequate 
local arrangements for carrying out these services, should 
the Coast Guard be removed. No mor6 striking illus- 
tration of the feasibility of this can be given than the 
National Lifeboat Oi^;anisation, and to that body, aided 
perhaps by a Government grant, these services could, 
no doubt, be easily, economically, and efiiclently trans- 

Owing to the growing naval armaments of other 
Nations, and the consequent necessary increase in the 
Navy, the Admiralty has found it necessary carefully to 
consider the whole question of the expenditure under 
the Naval Votes in order to eliminate therefrom any 
services vriiich are unnecessary from the point of view 
of immediate readiness and efficiency for war. About 
£1,000,000 of the Naval Votes is diverted to services 
which only indirectly concern the Navy, and are not 
material to the fighting efficiency of the Service. Of 

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this about half (,£500,000) is annually abttoibed by dw 
Coast Guard. 

From a Naval point of view the greater part of this 
heavy annual expenditure is wholly unnecessary, and it 
is also very doubtful, from what has been before pointed 
out, whether for Revenue purposes a force such as the 
Coast Guard is now required ; while if it be still required 
in certain localities, it would be more economical to 
r^lace the present expensive Naval detachments by t 
Civilian service. By such a transfer the whole of the 
present expense of training men as a fighting force 
would be saved and there would be no deterioration in an 
important part of the Naval active personnel such as is 
now inevitable. 

There can be no comparison between the cost of t 
Revenue force and that of a Naval force, the cost of 
Naval training, which is very considerable, being dis- 
pensed with in the former case. Therefore, there is no 
doubt that, from the point of efficiency and economy, 
the substitution of civilians for Naval ratings would be 
a great saving to the State. 


21a August, 1906. 

In the past Greenwich Observatory has been of great 
importance to the Navy, inasmuch as all the data neces- 
sary for the navigation of ships by astronomical observa- 
tion have been compiled there. The testing of chrono* 
meters has been carried out at Greenwich since their 
invention in 1762, while the Cape Observatory was 


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instituted in 1820 in order to supply data concerning 
Southern stars not visible from Greenwich. 

In recent years, however, the familiarity with Ocean 
routes that has been attained ; the greatly extended area 
of coast surveys, and the admirable system of lights and 
beacons established throughout the navigational zones 
of the world, have in the course of years caused the work 
of the Observatories to become of less importance to 
practical navigation, and more a matter of scientific 
research. The photographic mapping of the heavens, 
by which stars invisible to the naked eye are discovered, 
is not a necessity to navigation, nor to the Naval Service. 

At the present time, therefore, it may be said that the 
cmly work done by the Observatories iK^ch is directly 
useful to the Navy, is the testing and storing of chrono- 
meters ; observing the astronomical changes connected 
with the heavenly bodies for the purpose of obtaining 
data for the correction of the Nautical Almanack ; sup- 
plying accurate time for time signals and meridian dutance 
work, and taking magnetic observations. 

This sphere of usefulness is not of advantage to the 
Navy alone. The Mercantile Marine derives equal 
benefit from the work of the Observatories. Greenwich 
time is indispensable to Railway Companies to enable 
them to work their complicated systems with accurate, 
and it is equally indispensable to the Postal Authorities 
for the proper working of every post and telegraph office 
in the Kingdom. Although the staff of the Observa- 
tories is very largely occupied upon services of this public 
character, neither the Board of Trade, nor Lloyd's, not 


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the various Mercantile Shipping Associations, nor the 
Railway Companies, nor the General Post Office, have 
nude any contribution towards their cost, while, on the 
other hand, in one case, that of the Post Office, the Ad- 
miralty is charged with a heavy annual payment for 
postal and telegraphic communications. The London 
Water Companies are greatly assisted by the Greenwich 
rainfall observations, but they pay nothing for them, 
neither do they supply the Admiralty with water gratuit- 

It is fitting that the British Empire should possess a 
National Observatory, but it is not equitable that Naval 
funds should bear the whole expense. 

When criticism is directed against the magnitude of 
the Navy Estimates, it rarely happens that the critic 
takes the trouble to ascertain of what Items the Votes 
are made up ; on the other hand, money voted for the 
Royal Observatories is passed by the House without much 
question, because it happens to form part of Estimates 
which are of such great magnitude. 

The present procedure tends therefore to obscure the 
actiial sum total of the Navy Estimates, and at the same 
time it prevents the application to the Royal Observa- 
tories of the same Parliamentary criticism which is 
applied to the Civil Service Estimates. 

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[The three privately printed volumes titled " Naval Necessi- 
ties," zgo4, 1905, and 1906, contain papers written or collected 
bjr^ir John Fyici7~lis Conunander-in-Chiei at Portsmouth and as 
First Sea Lord of the Admiralty, bearing upon the NavaLAafomis 
which he then introduced or coatemplated. The following selec- 
tions from these papers tell their own story.] 

Sir John Fisher to Lord Se^orm, First Lord of 
the Admiralty. 

Dbar Lord Selborne, . . . 

You remember you ^anced throi^h some manuscript 
in my office at Portsmouth the day you embarked m 
" Enchantress," and I gathered that you saw much in 
them that commended itself to you. Well I having 
thus more or less got a favourable opinion from you, 
I elaborated that manuscript which you had read, and 
printed it with my confidential printer ; . . . then I 
gave it secretly to the five best brams in the Navy below 
the rank of Admiral to thresh out ; and associated two 
other brains for the consideration of the types of future 
fighting vessels ; then I selected out of those seven brains 
the one with the most facile pen and . . . said to 
him : " Write a calm and dispassionate precis for me to 
give the First Lord." You may be confident (as confident 
as I know you are) that the First Sea Lord won't ever 
sell you I that these seven brains may be absolutely 

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relied upon for secrecy. I have tested each of them for 
manv years 1 

These are the seven brains : Jackson, F.R.S., Jellicoe, 
C.B., Bacon, D.S.O., Madden, M.V.O.. Wilfred Hender- 
son (who has all the signs of the Zodiac after his name 1), 
associated with Gard, M.V.O., Chief Constructor of 
Portsmouth Dockyard, and who splendidly ke^t the 
Mediterranean Fleet efficient for three years, and Graciet 
the best Marine Engineer in the world I 

This is the " modus operandi " I suggest to you. If 
these proposals in their rough outline commend them- 
selves to you and our colleagues on the Board, then let 
me have these seven, assisted by Mr. Boar (who is a 
mole in the Accoimtant-General's Department — ^you 
know of him only by upheavals of facts and figures !), 
and secretly these eight will get out a detailed statement 
supported oy facts and figures for consideration before 
we take a step further I . . . 

Please now just a few words of explanation at the 
possibly apparent (but in no ways real) slight put on 
those at the Admiralty who might be thought the right 
persom to conduct Uiese detailed inquiries instead of 
the eight brains I've mentioned I 

In the first place, any such heavy extraneous woric 
(such as is here involved) means an utter dislocation of 
the ciurent work of the Admiralty if carried out by the 
regular Admiralty staff I and as any such extraneous 
work must of necessity give place to any very pressing 
current work, then the extraneous work doesn't get done 
properly — so both suffer ! — But further I these seven 
other spirits (not more wicked than any of those at the 
Admiralty I) will be absolutely untrammelled by any 
remarks of their own in the official records m the 
Admiralty, and will not be cc^nisant (and so not in- 
fluenced I) by the past written official minutes of the 
High and Mighty Ones, and so we shall get the directness 
and unfettered candour that we desire 1 (Parenthesis : — 


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A most distinguished man at the War Office used to 
think he had gained his point and blasted the Admiralty 
by collecting extracts 20 years old with opposing decisions I 
absolutely regardless tmit what is right to-day may be 
wrong to-morrow I but he traded on what we all dislike 
— the charge of inconsistency ! — ^Why I the two most 
inconsistent men who ever lived, the two greatest men 
who ever lived and the two most successnil men who 
ever lived, were Nelson and Napoleon !) 

Nelson most rightly said that no sailor could ever be 
such a bom ass as to attack forts with ships (he was 
ahsoiutefy right), and then he went straight at them at 
Copenha^n. Napoleon said, " L'audace, i'audace, 
toujours Ttmdace ! and then he went and temporised 
at Warsaw for three solid weeks (was it a Polish 
Countess ?), and so got ruined at Moscow in conse- 
quence of this delay. 

Circumstances alter cases ! That's the answer to the 
charee of inconsistencv. So please let us have this 
exceUent and unparallded small working Committee to 
thresh out all these details fwhen the general outlines 
have been considered), but this very special point will no 
doubt be borne in mind : — " Until you have these details 
how can you say you approve of the outline F " So 
what has to be said finallv ts that if the facts and figures 
corroborate what is sketched out, then the proposals can 
be considered for adoption, so the ultimate result is this : — 
" Let the Committee get on at once." 

J. A. F18HBR. 

Main FiuNciPLfiS of Schemb. 
Future Types of F^hting Vessels. 
Four classes only of fighting vessels. 
Uniform armament (except torpedo attack guns) in all 
cUisses of fighting vessels. 

129 K 

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Inviolate watertight bulkheads. 

Subdivision of magazines. 

Protection of magazines. 

Abolish Ram. 

No guns on main deck (so splendid light and aiiy 
accommodation for officers, and crew, with huge square 
ports and magnificent deck space). 

Reduction of all weights and scantlings. 

" Out of Date " Fighting Sh^. 

Removal as soon as possible of all " out of date " 
ships (that is, ships unBt for fighting). 

To abolish gradually the employment of all sha vessels 
below ist Class Armoured Cruisers. 

To substitute efficient fighting vessels with nucleus 
crews for all the stationary obsolete vessels now in 
commission, and also for all the training vessels and all 
the Coas^;uard Cruisers. 

Revision of Stations. 

South Atlantic, West Indies, and Cape to form a 
squadron under chief command of the Admiral of the 
Cape Station, who will be a Vice-Admiral in the future 
with three Rear-Admirals under him.^ 

The Commander-in-Chief in China to have the chief 
command and strategic handling of the squadrons in 
China, Australia, East Indies, and Pacific. He can be 
a full Admiral with two Vice-Admirals and two Rear- 



Admirals under him. The object is to ea^hy FU^ 
Officers as tnuch as possible at sea. 

Effective Crui8si:&-to be substituted for the present 
varying types of vessels forming all these squadrons. 


Reduction in entry of Boys, and increase of entry of 
Non-continuous Service Men -and of " Northampton " 

Introduction of new system of Reserve (long service 
tempered by short service 1} 

Nucleus Crews. 

Two-yearly^ commissitms to be instituted, and with no 
material chai^ oF officers and "men during the two 

All the fighting vessels in Reserve to have an efficient 
nucleus crew of approximatdy two-fifdis of the full 
crew, together with all important Gunnery ratii^ as 
well as the Captain of the ship and the principal Officers. 

The periodical exercise and inspection of the ships by 
the responsible Flag Officer who wUl take them to the 

This Flag Officer wUl suffer for any want of efficiency 
and preparation for war of these vessels. These vessels 
to be collected in squadrons at Portsmouth, Plymouth, 
and Chatham, according to the Station to which they are 
going as the reinforcements. 

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Revision of our methods of Signalling to be based on 
the class of Signals that will be used in war. 

To abolish all systems and all Signals that are only of 
use in peace time. 

The Signal and Exercise Books of the Fleet to be 
ruthlessly revised and cut down with this in view. 

The present establishment of Signalmen on board 
all vessels to be reduced to the numbers that are necessary 
in war (present system of superabundance of Signalmen 
embarked in Flagships criminally wrong). 

Defence of Naval Ports. 

Modem conditions necessitate certain floating defences 
requiring seamen to manipulate them. Soldiers appar- 
ently can't do it I 

Divided control of defence of Naval Ports impossible 
between Navy and Army. 

Admiralty must have sole responsibility that all our 
Naval Arsenals are kept open for egress and ingress of 
our Fleet in war. 

Local defences should, therefore, apparently be imder 
the Naval Commander-in-Chief. 

But all these arrangements for any such transfer of 
responsibility from War Office to Admiralty must be so 
planned as to obviate all p<»sibility of Fleet men beii^ 
used for shore work in war, and there must be no risk of 
lessening the sea experience of the officers and men of the 
Fleet ; hence it will be imperative that there should be 

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an entire transference of the whole of the Garrison 
Artillery from Army to Navy, as well as the responsibility 
for all ordnance. 

All this involves so immense an addition to the 
responsibilities of the Admiralty, apart from the one chief 
function of the Navy of seeking out and fighting the 
enemy's fleets, that we have to hesitate ; but we can't let 
matters go on as at present. 

Notes by Sir John Fisher on New Proposals. 
Orgamsation for War. 

" If the Trumpet give an uncertain sound, who shaU 
prepare Himself to the battle ? " 

(St. Paul, I Carinthians, xiv. 8.) 

The object of the following remarks is to make clear 
what has now to be done to organise and prepare for war. 
What are the two great essentials F 
7. The Sufficiency of Strength and the Fightitig Effideney 

of the Fket. 
II. Absolute Instant Readmeufor War. 

To get these two essentials an immense deal is involved I 
It is believed they can both be got with a great reduction 
in the Navy Estimates I 

This reduction, combined with an undeniable increase 
in the fighting efficiency of the Navy, involves great 
changes and depends absolutely on one condition : — 
The Scheme herein shammed forth must be adopted ax a 
whole / 

Simply because all portions of it are absolutely essential 

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— and it is all so interlaced that any tampering will be 

The country will acclaim it I the income-tax payer 
will worship it ! the Navy will growl at it I (they always 
do growl at first !) 

Bui toe shall be Thirty per cent, more fit to j^ht and toe 
shall be ready for itistant toar ! 

and in time when we get rid of our redundancies in 
useless ships and unnecessary men it will probably be 
30 per cent, cheaper I 

The outline of the various proposals \rill first be given. 
No (me single point must be taken as more important than 
another. Each is part of a whole ; As St. Paul well 
observes in the xii. Chapter of the I Corinthians : — 

" The eye carmot say unto the hand, I have no need of thee : 
nor again the head to the feet, I have no need of you. Nay^ 
much more those members of the body, which seem to be 
more feeble, are necessary." 

So is it of this scheme I All its parts are essential for 
the perfection we must have if England is to remain 
the " Mistress of the Seas " I 

The British Nation floats on the British Navy t So 
we must have no doubt whatever about its fighting 
supremacy and its instant readiness for war I To 
ensure this and at the same time to effect the economy 
winch the finances of ike country render imperatioe there 
must be drastic chaises I To .^any these out we must 
have the three R's I We must be Ruthless, Relentless, 
Remorseless I We must tell interested people whose 
interests are going to be ignored that what the Articles 

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of War have said since the time of Queen Elizabeth is 
truer than ever I 

" // is the Navy ahereon under the good providence of 
God, the wealth, peace, and safety of this country doth 
cMefiy depend / " 

If the Navy is not supreme, no Army however large 
is of the slightest use. It's not invasion we have to fear 
if bur Nitvy is beaten, 
I^s Starvation! 

What's the good of an army if it has got an empty 
belly ? In Mr. John Morley's famous and splendid 
words at Manchester on November 8th, 1893: "Evayho^ 
knows, Liberab as toett as Tories, that it is indispensable 
that we should have not only a poaerful Navy, but I nu^ 
say, an all-powerful Navy" And when we have that — 
then History may repeat itself, and Mahan's glorious 
words will be t^licabh in some other great national 
crisis ! the finest words and the truest words in the 
English language I 

" Nelson's far-distant, storm-beaten ships, upon tehieh 
the Grand Army never looked, stood between it and the 
dominion of the world."— (MdMn, Vol. II., page 118.) 

And the Navy must always so stand I Supreme — 
unbeaten I So we must have no tinkering I No pander- 
ing to sentiment I No regard for 8U8cq>tibiltties I No 
pity for anyone I We must be Ruthless, Rdentless, and 
Remorseless I And we must therefore have The Scheme I 
The Whole Sdhemc-U- And Nothing Pm the Scheme 1 1 1 

Just let us take one instance as an illustration of a 

mighty reform (lots more will follow later, but the sledge 


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hammer comes in handy here I). During the 12 months 
ending June 30th, 1904 (this last month I) the ships of 
the Home Fleet, the Channel Fleet, and the Cruiser 
Squadron were in Portsmouth Dockyard for over 30 per 
cent, of the year ! Disorganised and unfit for sea I 
See what this means t A battleship costs over j£ioo,ooo 
a year for its up-keep, irrespective of repairs, but it's 
not the money waste I it's the efficiency waste ! 

Every d^ those Fleets and Squadrons are not together^ 
they are deteriorating / 

It is only human nature that when in Portsmouth 
Dockyard, from the Admiral downwards, all are hankering 
after their homes I and somehow or other they get 
there I the fictions are endless and ingenious, and extend 
from " the cradle to the grave 1 " From an unexpected 
confinement to the serious ilbiess of an aged relative I 
(nearly always a grandmother 1 and the baby is always 
the first one I) 

What is the remedy ? 

It's Nelsonic — and so simple ! 

Nelson could not leave Toulon with all his Fleet for 
nearly four months out of the year ! No I he stayed 
there for two years without putting his foot on shore I 
What he did was to send one or two ships away at a time 
to get provisions and water, and to effect any needed 
repairs. Let us do the same I We want a fixed base 
for each Fleet (and so fixed for war reasons). Thus, for 
example, the Channel Fleet at Gibraltar, the Home 
Fleet at Bantry, or the Forth, and so on. But this is 
going into unnecessary detail, and anticipating other 

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parts of the scheme which must be adopted to make this 
work I Thus it will be seen later on, that to enable this 
great economy in money to be effected {putting aside 
increase of fighting efficiency !), we must have two years* 
cgmmisgiooa I 3;M we can't have two years* commis- 
sions unless we have fewer ships in commission I But 
we can't have fewer ships in commission unless we have 
a lei^lUtrihution of our Fleet I But we can't have a 
redistribution of our'"PIe<elt xmtjl.jre-- rearrange our 
strategy ! and this strategy, strange to say, depends on 
our reserves, and our reserves depend on a fresh allocation 
of oiir personnel, and on a fresh system of serviced ~ We 
must have the new scJieme~of~Long-'8erviee -iar^ered by 
Short Service I And this again largely hangs on the 
types of fighting ships we are going to have I But v>hat 
is the type of ship f Not one that goes to the bottom in 
two minutes from the effect of one torpedo, and drowns 
nearly a thousand men, and takes three years to replace, 
and costs over a million sterling ! Hon tnar^ types do 
toe want ! This is quite easy to answer if we make up 
our minds hoa toe are going to fight I Who has made up 
his mind ? Hout rmmy of our Admirals have got minds t 

It will be obvious then that the whole of this business 
is a regular case of " the house that Jack built," for one 
thing follows on another, they are all interlaced and inter- 
dependent ! That's why it was said to begin with : — 

The Scheme f The Whole Scheme ! ! And Nothing 
but the Scheme f 1 1 

One essential feature which has been overlooked 
must be mentioned before going further because impna- 

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twefy necessary to ensure instant readiness for war, but it 
hangs on all the other points previously mentioned and 
which are going to be ccamined in detail. 

The reduction in the number of ships in conunisaon 
which is as necessary for fighting efficiency ipken the rohoU 
Navy is mMUsedfor war) as it is conducive to an immense 
econoif^ must be accompanied by and associated with two 
vital requisites : 

I. Every fighting ship in reserve must have a nudeus 

II. The reinforcements for the fighting fleets and 
squadrons must be collected together while in the reserve 
at the most convenient ports and be placed under the 
Flag Officer who will take them to their war stations, 
and this Flag Oflicer to understand he will be shot like 
a dog in case of any inefficiency in these ships in war. 

Unless this is carried out the great strategic scheme 
in contemplation could not be entertained nor could the 
number of ships in commission be reduced as is absolutely 
essential for the efficiency of those in reserve, not on the 
score of econon^ at all, but the reduction of ships in com- 
mission is imperative for the f^hta^ efficiency of the whole 
fieet when mobilised. 

So we thus get one more illustration of the inter- 
dependence of all portions of the scheme and beg again 
to refer to St. Paul as previously quoted. 

It is convenient here to mention that the paucity of 

efficient Admirals is a most serious matter, and will 

probably compel the manufacture of Commodores or of 

Acting Admirals under a resuscitated Order-in-Council. 


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The least capable in the respective ranks of the Navy are 
the Admirals. It's not their own fault solely, they have 
had no education, and this blot will continue till we have 
a Naval War College established at Portsmouth, and Flag 
Officers and Captains, hoping for employment, can 
practically prove their capacity by manceuvring two fleets 
of destroyers gainst each other. This will be much 
cheaper and less risky to the Empire than their man- 
ceuvring with the big ships. ExperimenU on the scaU of 
12 inches to afoot tare not economical ! 

Mr. Childers was our Attila I He was the " scourge " 
of the Navy in many ways, but most of all by his dis- 
astrous and frightfully costly retirement schemes. The 
secret of efficiency lies in large Usts of Officers I You have 
then a large field of selection, and a great flow of promo- 
tion, and also no Officer considers it a stigma to be 
passed over in company with forty others, and so not to 
pose as a solitary monument of ineptitude as he appears 
at present to himself and his friends when passed over 
with the present small Usts of Flag Officers. 

Also " Selection by non-ett^Ioyment " goes so easily 
with large Usts (and with large lists is accepted as a 
necessity, and not resented as a personal affront I). 


Out of 193 ships at present in cnmmission (not counting 

destroyers) oi^;anised in fleets, 63 only are of such caUbre 

as not to cause an Admiral grave concern if allowed to 

wander from the protection of larger ships. There are 


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among these several ships which should be paid off as 
soon as p(»3ibl{f, being absohitdy of bo fighting value. 
And there are,- further,' several ships having trained 
naval crews doing the work usually performed by small 
merchant tramps. Further still, there are in our Home 
Ports many ships taking up valuable berthing space, 
requirii^ maintenance and repair, which never under any 
circumstances whatever would be used in war time. 

The above useless vessels being in o>mmission means 
awful waste of money. 

Every ship that has defects taken in hand, and which 
would not be of use in war, is a waste of money to the 

Of course objections will be raised, and it will be 
shown that the Navy cannot be nm without them, but 
wipe them out, and in a year no one will remember that 
they ever existed. 

It is well to review generally our distant stations and 
the composition of their squadrons. 

The Navy and the country have grown so accustomed 
to the territorial nomenclatiu« of oiu* distant squadrons 
that their connection with the sea is considerably ob- 
scured, and their association with certain lands has led 
to a tacit belief that those particular squadrons are for 
the protection of the lands they &^quent, and not 
generally for the destruction of the enemy's fleet wherever 
it may happen to be. Of course no such idea is accepted 
by the Admiralty, but, in spite of the broad principles 
of strategy involved, certain fleets are composed largely 
with a view to work in restricted waters, which vessels 

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would be a source of danger and weakness on the sudden 
outbreak of war with a combination of Powers. 

Take the combination of ships on each of the following 
stations : North America, Cape of Good Hope, East 
Indies, and Australia. Remember the " Variag." What 
happened in the small area of the theatre of operations 
in the present war will be repeated in the la^r theatre 
of operations of a conflict of European Powers when the 
whole world will be involved. What will happen to 
our " Odins," " Redbreasts," " Fantomes," " Dwarfe," 
etc. ? aye I and what will happen to our " Scyllas," 
" Katoombas," and " Hyacinths," if caught sight of by 
first class cruisers of modem armament on foreign 
stations ?^ Lucky if they can reach a neutral port, 
disarm, and have their crews interned for the remainder 
of the war. Lucky, indeed, if a far worse fate does not 
befall them. At all events, such wholesale scattering of 
the British foreign fleets would lead to irreparable loss 
of prestige among the smaller States T^ere these little 
vessels were usually located. 

Now is there jMLoec essitv for such numben of 
useless fighting ships? Cannot more~3ficirat classes 
be substituted for them, ^r, at all events, some of 

What we have to face is the probability of a serious 
combination of strong To wei a ag u in o t u o , fo r then we 
will be unable to s'parie~two firel cta^~ cruisiers to go in 
search of individual enemy's first class cruisers, who, if 

' 1 The "Pqiasus" was massacred at Zanzibar by tbs Gennaiia)— 
F. 1919. 


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not caught, may sweep round and lick up or force into 
neutral ports all our inefficient small fry. 

Surely the three Atlantic squadrons should be of such 
strength as to be able to rendezvous and form a fleet 
more or less absolutely self-protective, to say nothing of 
being offensive. Such a squadron, under one admiral 
in war time, would be an effective Atlantic squadron, 
and would protect our interests by holding the ocean 
against enemy's cruisers. 

Such squadrons can be formed without increasing the 
personnel of the Navy, and, moreover, the crews would 
be in ships that would be used in war instead of being 
in " floating anxieties." 

Now for the present, sufficient cruisers, first class, do 
not exist to meet the requirements of supplying ships 
to take the place of smaller obsolete ones, and also for 
reserve purposes. 

For the present a lai^ proportion of cruisers, second 
class, must be retained, but it is hoped that these will 
in time be replaced by cruisers, first class, in the propor- 
tion of one cruiser, first class, to three cruisers, second 
or third class. No one can argue that one first class 
cruiser is not a superior fighting unit to three cruisers 
second or third class. Also one defect list instead of 
three I 

If it should be insisted on that certain ports require 
certain small vessels, then they should be earmaiked for 
that purpose, and only such places be recognised which 
larger vessels caimot frequent, such as the rivers on the 
West Coast of Africa (our territory), shallow rivers in 

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China where no question of neutrality can arise, or special 
places of this nature. It should be overwhelmingly 
proved to the satisfaction of the Admiralty that essential 
conditions necessitate the presence of useless fighting 
ships before they relax their efforts to have such useless 
ships removed. 

It should be accepted as a^pa^uiple that the great 
aim and object of the. AdnuFal^- is- to have nothing 
floating on the waters except the, four fundamental 
types of fighting vessels, and that (for the present) lack 
of ships o£ the necessary classes prevents this being 
realised, but that as the dehvery of ships takes place, 
the substitution will automatically follow. 

The Foreign Ofiice will in time be bound to recognise 
the real efficiency of the scheme, even if a consul is 
robbed of the shadow of support of a gunboat under his 
window, but has the substantial strength of a first class 
cruiser substituted at the end of a telegraph wire. 
:' The danger that is etentally present to the Navy is ■ 
WW cor^dence in our prepare^iess for tear. 

The chief cause of unpreparedness for war is want 
of appreciation of the cumulative effect of daily small 
changes in our ships and armament on the whole question 
of strategy and shipbuilding. 

Changes have slipped so gradually from wooden 
sailing ships through slow steam iron vessels to our 
present splendid ships of war that the tendency has 
always been to subordinate our strategy to our ship 
construction, rather than to mould our war ship design 
to suit our strategy. 


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Strategy should govern the types ofsh^s to be designed. 

Ship design, as dictated by strategy, should govern 

Tactics should govern details of armaments. 

In approadiing the important question of ship design 
the first essential is to divest our minds totally of the 
idea that a single type of ship as now built is necessary, 
or even advisable, then to conaido- the strategic use of 
each different class, especially weighing the antagon- 
istic attributes of nominally similar classes in the old 

To commence with the battleship. 

The sole reason for the existence of the old line oX. 
battleship was that that ship was the only vessel that 
could not be destroyed except by a vessel of equal class. 
This meant that a coimtry possessing the largest number 
of best equipped battleships could lay them alongside 
the enemy, or off the ports where the enemy were. 
Transports with the escort of a few battleships could 
then proceed to make oversea conquests. Squadrons 
of battleships or cruisers escorting the convoy of merchant 
ships and keeping the line of communications open. In 
each case the battleship, being able to protect everything 
it had under its wing from any smaller vessel, was the 
ultimate naval strength of the country. Then it was 
that, by means of the battleship only, was the command 
of the sea gained and held. Let us be quite clear on the 
matter, it teas solely from the fact that the battleship toas 
unassailable by any vessel except a battleship that made 
the command of the sea by battleships a possibility I 

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Hence Inttleships came to symbolise naval sea strei^;th 
and supremacy. For this reason battleships have been 
built through every change of construction and material, 
although by degrees other vessels not battleships have 
arisen which can attack and destroy them. 

Here therefore there is good—ground .for inquiry 
whether the naval supremacy of a country can any 
longer be assessed by its battleships. To build battle- 
ships merely to fight enemy's battleships, so long as 
cheaper craft can destroy them, and prevent them of 
themselves protecting sea operations, is merely to breed 
Kilkenny cats unable to catch rats or mice. For fighting 
purposes they would be excellent, but for gaining prac- 
tical results they would be useless. 

This at once forces a consideration as to how a battle- 
ship differs from an armoured cruiser. Fundamentally 
the battleship sacrifices speed for a superior armament 
and protective armour. It is this superiority of speed 
that enables an enemy's ships to be overhauled or evaded 
that constitutes the real difference between the two. 
At the present moment naval e:^>erience ts not sufficiently 
ripe to aboUsh totally the bml£ng of battletMps so long as 
other countries do not do so. 
But it is evidently an absolute necessity in future con-j 

V struction to make the speed of the battleship approacU 

\a nearly as possible that of the armoured cruiser. ^ ' 

Next consider the case of the armoured cruiser. 

In the old days the frigate was the cruiser, she was 
unarmoured, that is, her sides were so much thinner 
than those of the battleship that she was not able to 

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fight in the line of battle, but the weak gun fire of those 
days permitted close scouting by such unprotected vessels, 
she could approach a battleship squadron very closely 
without fear of damage, she could sail round a fleet and 
count their numbers without danger to herself, unless 
chased off by other frigates, she was a scout and a 
commerce destroyer. Similarly with present day ar- 
moured cruisers, they can force their way up to within 
sight of a fleet, and observe them, unless chased off by 
other armoured cruisers, but to do this they have to be 
given a certain amount of protective armour. 

The range of eyesight has remained constant, that of 
gunfire has increased. Speed is a necessity to ensure 
safety, armour protection to ensure vision. 

It is evident, from the above considerations, that the 
functions of the frigate have devolved on the armoured 
cruiser to a greater extent than have the functions of 
the line of battleship devolved on the modem battleship. 

But how about the unarmoured cruisers and those of 
low speed ? 

With loss of protection a cruiser loses her power of 
reasonable approach for observation purposes, and if to 
this be added a loss of reasonable speed her safety is 
gone. Cruisers without high speed and protection are 
entirely and absolutely useless. 

Every vessd that has not high scouting speed, or the 
highest defensive and offensive powers, is useless for 
fighUag purposes. 

This is true of every class of vessel between the first 
class armoured cruiser and the fast torpedo vessel. 

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Nucleus Crews. 

It is impossible to exaggerate the vital importance to 
the nation of having all the reserve ships absolutely 
ready for instant war. 

Our r^erve ships, as they are now, are not, and cannot 
be made really efficient fighting units tmder several 
months of commission. There is no doubt that great 
strides towards rapid mobilisation have been made of 
late years, but merely to hustle a complement of the 
required ratings mto a ship, is not to make her a really 
e^ient fighting machine. 

The keystone of our pre^e^t\ea_lQr ffw* has mno to he 

inserted, namely, the provision of efficient nucUuf_crejiij[, 

This can be done to-morrow. 

A nucleus crew should consist of approximately 
two-fifths of her ei^:ine-room complement, the whole of 
her turret crews, gun layers and sight-setters for all 
guns, all important special ratings, and two-fifths of her 
normal crew, her captain, and all important officers. 

The ship can proceed half-yearly, or quarterly, as 
may be required, to sea with her fighting ship's company 
to carry out firing exercises, or to work under the Admiral 
or Commodore who will command her and her consorts 
in war, and be as nearly perfectly efficient as any ship, 
not always at sea, can be. 

No more men above our present requirements need 
be entered, training in gunnery and torpedo schools 
need not be interfered with, and a savii^; of money to 
the taxpayer effected. 

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We are now busily engaged in perfecting each and all 
of these subsidiary services ; but they are not yet perfect. 
In some important respects we are as yet far from it 
(Rome was not built in a day I), but we now emphasise 
the fact in order that matters may be pushed on by all 
concerned, from the Prime Minister downwards, with 
the utmost energy and vigour I 

The items are not taken in the order of their relative 
importance, but for convenience of argument. 

There is the service of all the auxiliary vessels of the 
Fleet for supplying coal, ammunition, stores, provisions, 
water, materials for repairs, &c., and also the multitudes 
of fast mercantile vessels we require as Scouts ; and there 
is also the nature of the employment of the armed 
mercantile cruisers to be settled. Alt these points have 
been carefully considered in the past, but in all and 
every one of them there is that most deadly of all deadly 
drawbacks to fighting readiness, the leaving certain 
things to be dealt with " token the time comes." The 
time will come like the Day of Judgment 1 There won't 
be time for doing anything, not even for repentance I 
We must go to the very utmost limit of preparedness, 
not one little item must be left to be dealt with " when 
the time comes." We want all these vessels, without 
any exception whatever, to be as ready for a sudden 
emergency as is now the main Fighting Fleet I So there- 
fore, day by day, we must know by name each vessel 
for every service, and the orders for every captain of 

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every single one of this multitude of mercantile aiudliaries 
must be prepared, and he (each several captain) must 
thoroughly understand these orders beforehand ; they 
must be explained to him by " one who knows," and 
when that captain leaves England for his next trade voyage 
(and his ship is therefore no toiler available), then the 
operation must be repeated with the captain of the 
substituted vessel t It must be laid down where every 
ship is to load, what route she is to follow, what even- 
tualities she has to guard against I All, and together, 
must be detailed and day by day kept perfect / 

Again, who are the officers at every port superintending 
the imparting of this information every day of the year, 
to the daily fresh captains of daily fresh ships, replacing 
others daily, going on their usual trade voyages P AVho 
is the Flag Officer in supreme charge of all these super- 
intending Port Officers P What are the names of the 
retired Commissioned or Warrant Officers who may be 
allocated to take passage in all the more important 
auxiliary vessels P such, for instance, and above all, as 
the Ammunition and Repair ships, so as to ensure the 
proper control and distribution of the cargo, as well as 
the efficient and prompt action of the ship herself, to 
be at the right place at the right time. Every Comman- 
der-in-Chief must know in minute detail every particular 
about every one of these vessels that are coming to him. 
He must know it noa. He must know it d!ay by day I 
He must have his own agent at home to look after his 
interests and to be responsible to him (the Commander- 
in-Chief) for the completeness of all the^arrangements, 

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— if not complete, then this agent must report the 
Superintending Port Officers for their incompetency. 

All this scheme above sketched out may involve 
immense labour and great expense, hut it has got to be 
done ! Not a bit of use having the Fleet at all, if you 
don't feed it, and also feed it well I 

Quite as a separate service, apart &om all that has 
been mentioned above, is the dissemination of intelli- 
gence and its suppression. 

We must not (as has been hitherto accepted) 
permit the splendid costly fighting vessels of the Fleet 
to be criminally wasted by being sent here and there as 
messengers I Fast unarmoured mercantile steamers must 
constitute the squadrons of the Sea Intelligence Depart- 
ment, and instead of our Admirals running after informa- 
tion with costly armoured cruisers, we must run after 
the Admirals with the information, with easily obtainable 
cheap (because non-fighting), fast mercantile vessels. 

All this is but a brief review of what is in progress, 
and what has to be done, but there remains above all 
that daily consideration at the Admiralty, and by every 
Admiral in command, of what would have to be done 
that very day in case of war, with the most unexpected, 
as well as the most expected opponent I 

A Retrospect (July, 1906). 
llie most striking fact to an outsider is the astonishii^ 
confidence and loyalty of the Navy in its rulers which 
has been exhibited during he last two years of relentless 



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Naval Officers, as a class, are conservative and dislike 
change, and as a rule are prepared to resist it. The 
manner in which the recent changes have been received, 
root and branch and sweeping as they were, shows, as 
nothing else can, the necessity for reforms. Compare 
the insignificant agitation (which has, however, now 
entirely collapsed), in the Navy over the vast and drastic 
reforms of the last two years with the agitation in the 
Army over the trifling matter of getting rid of two bat- 
talions of Guards t 

So let us be grateful — adequately grateful — to the 
officers and men of the Navy for their splendid loyalty 
during the introduction of reforms, some of which have 
hit them very hard, notably the sudden brii^ii^ home 
and paying off of the large number of vessels that were 
wiped out of the Navy as not being up to the required 
standard of fighting efficiency. And there was also the 
redistribution of the Fleet, which deprived many officers 
of advantageous appointments and seriously disturbed 
domestic arrangements. 

But the fact is that the Navy sees the fighting advan- 
tages we have gained, and so has loyally responded to 
the demands on its sense of duty. 

As an excellent writer in the " North American Re- 
view " for June so aptly expresses it, the Navy saw that 
it was steam-manship that was wanted, and so, as a 
body, they welcomed the new scheme of training both 
of officers and men. They saw also that to have every 
vessel of the Navy, lai^ and small, mobilised and 
efficient to fight within three hours in the dead of night, 

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as practically exemplified in the recent Grand Manceurres, 
is a result which justifies all the drastic measures of the 
Board of Admiralty. 

The Navy also recognises the incomparable fighting 
advantages of the new era in giving us an unparalleled 
gunnery efficiency, as exemplified in the faa that before 
that new era there were 2,000 more misses than hits in 
the annual gunlayera' competition, while in the year 
after there were 2,000 more hits than misses I In the 
new order the best ship is the one that can catch the 
enemy soonest, and hit him hardest and oftenest ; under 
the old system these considerations were certainly not 
the primary ones. 

The Navy sees also that, while the fighting efficiency of 
the British Fleet and its instant readiness for war has 
become a household word amongst the Admiralties of 
the world, at the same time vast economies — to be 
reckoned in many millions — have been eifected ; for 
instance, our harbours, docks, and basins are ridded of 
obsolete vessels and thus made adequate for the accom- 
modation of our fighting fleet, for which there was no 
room previously, and no less a sum than 13 millions 
sterling was at one time contemplated as necessary to 
give the required accommodation. The whole of that 
13 millions in proposed works has been cancelled. 

Nor have the officers and men been forgotten. The 
men have had a quarter of a million sterling practically 
added to their pay ; one item alone is ^75,000 a year 
for increase of pensions to petty officers, and another 
,£47,000 a year in giving them their food allowance when 

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on leave, and other similar and just concessions make up 
the balance. Further improvements in the position of 
the lower deck are now under consideration and will 
shortly be ready for announcement, i^.. Ratings Com- 

The officers, again, no longer pay for the bands out 
of their own pockets, and the system of Nucleus Crews 
gives them an amount of Home Service combined with 
sea-time, with all its domestic advantages, beyond 
anything ever before obtaining in the Navy. 

Again, it is recognised by all but a few misguided 
misanthropes that the new shipbuilding policy is a mag- 
nificent departure in Bghting policy. We ask the officers 
who are going to fight, what they want, and we build 
thereto. Formerly vessels were simply belated improve- 
ments on their predecessors. Admirals had to make 
the best use they could of the heter<^neous assemblage 
of vessels which the idiosyncrasies of talented designers 
and Controllers of the Navy had saddled us with, to the 
embarrassment of those whose business It was to use 
them in battle, and to the bitter bewilderment of types 
in the brain of the Board of Admiralty I Theory was 
entirely divorced from practice, _with_ the lamentable 
result that when the two were recently.hmu^ tngrther, 
and the " Dreadnought " was evolved, it was found 
that the whole Navy had practically become nbaoletei— 

" First catch your hare " is the recipe in Mrs. Glasse's 

Cookery Book for "jugged hare," and so~«p«cd has 

been put in the forefront in emry class of vessel from 

battleship to submarine, and as it's no use having the 


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speed without the wherewithal to demolish the enemy, 
the armament of our new ships, as so fully exemplified 
in the " Dreadnou^t," has received such a development 
that that vessel is equal to any two and a half battleships 
at present existing. 

The efficacy of the Nucleus Crew system has also 
been obvious to the whole Fleet in the unprecedented 
exemptions from machinery defects, and the unexampled 
gunnery efficiency, coupled with a saving of about 
50 per cent, in repairs of ships, which incidentally has 
led in a large measure to the reduction of 6,000 Dockyard 
workmen. And it must never be forgotten that every 
penr^ not spent in afighti?^ ship or on a fighting man is a 
penny taken away from the day of battle ! 

The management of the Royal Dockyards has now 
been placed on a much sounder footing, more akin to 
the organisation in similar commercial establishments, 
where any undue extravagance or unnecessary executive 
machinery means loss of money to the shareholders, 
and is visited by pains and penalties on the officials 
directly responsible. At the same time the desirable 
possibilities of ready expansion in war time to suit the 
varying requirements of a purely naval repairing and 
building establishment have been maintained. 

The Navy also sees the great strategic advantages of 
oiu- Fleets exercising where they are likely to fight. 
As Nelson said, " The battle ground should be the drill 

The placid waters and lovely weather of the Mediter- 
ranean do not fit our seamen for the fogs and gales of 

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the North Sea, or accustom them to the rigours of a 
northern winter, when the icicles hang down over the 
bed or the hammock of the Torpedo Boat Commander 
and his men, as in the North Sea last winter when we 
sent 147 Torpedo Craft suddenly to exercise at sea ; and 
though sent on a full power trial of many hours, on first 
being mobilised, not a single defect or breakdown was 
experienced. Since that date the arrangements for the 
Torpedo Craft have been sdll further perfected, and now 
the Destroyers are all organised according to the strategic 
requirements of the situation of the moment, and are 
definitely detailed in flotillas and divisions, with their 
store and repair ships and reserves, according to the 
approved modem methods of torpedo warfare as exempli- 
fied in the Russo-Japanese War. 

The Navy also sees and welcomes the untold ad^^mtage 
given bv the Nucleus Cre^y system of instant war 
readiness,^ oLempliiied whenlasr'Jaty'alt our vessels, 
large andlsmall, in reserve went to sea imnoticed by the 
Press and engaged in fighting Manoeuvres in the Channel 
with 200 pendants under the chief command of the 
Admiral of the Channel Fleet. 

No calling out of Reserves or such disorganisation as 
was incidental to the old system, when the crews of 
ships in commission had to be broken up to leaven the 
ships of the Reserve that then had no crews at all. 

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I. — Common &m»Y. 
(Written in 1905). 

On the 25th of December, 1902, the new system of 
entry and training of officers for the Navy was 

The fundamental principles of this great reform are : — 

(a) The common entry and training of officers of the 

three -principal branches of the Service, viz., 
Combatant or Executive, Engineer, and Marine. 

(b) The practical amalgamation of mese three branches 

of officers. - ' 

(c) The recognition of the faa that the existence of 

the Navy depends on machinery, and that, 
therefore, all combatant officers must be 

(d) The adoption of the principle that the general 

education and training of all these officers 
must be completed before they go to sea, 
instead of, as heretofore, drawing on in a 
perfunctory manner during their service as 
midshipmen, to be finally completed by a 
short cram " at Greenwich and Portsmouth. 

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When the details of the new scheme were published, 
it was stated that at about the age of 20 these officers, 
who up till then had all received an identical training, 
would be appropriated by selection to the three branches, 
viz., Executive, Marine, or Engineer ; however, thb is 
unlikely to be carried out in its entirety, and when the 
time comes, the march of progress will have prepared 
us to recognise that differentiation to this extent is 
unnecessary, and that the Fleet will be officered by the 
combatant officer, who will be equally an Executive, 
Marine, or Ei^ineer Officer. 

Let us asstune this to be true. In spite of the great 
revolution that has been brought about since Christmas, 
1902, in the Navy, and the consequent awakening and 
development of the minds of all officers, there is not one 
in one hundred who realises fully what the effects of 
this great reform will be. 

The Cadets who are at present at Osborne College 
are being educated primarily as Mechanical Engineers 
concurrently with the special training necessary to make 
them good seamen, good navigators, and good com- 
manders. The most important training they have to 
receive is undoubtedly that of the Mechanical Engineer, 
which will ultimately make them capable of dealii^ with 
and handling anyhuno of a mechaoical ..nature. In 
process of learning this they acquire a mathematical 
training of a very high order, and, as pure mathematics 
are the same all the world over, the various other subjects 
which the Naval Officer of the future will be required 
to be proficient in only necessitate a little training in the 

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special application of the mathematics of which th^ 
possess a firm grasp. Navigation and nautical astronomy 
are simplicity exemplified once the student has learned 
trigonometry and algebra. Gunnery, torpedo, and elec- 
tricity are simply special cases of mechanical problems. 
Modern seamanship is practically nothing else but a 
practical application of simple mechanical " chestnuts.'* 

What, therefore, is the meaning of it all ? 

It means that the Naval Ofiicer of the future will 
regard machinery, mechanical work, and mechanical 
problems as his " bread and butter." He will think no 
more of handling machinery of any sort than the ordinary 
mortal does of riding a bicycle ; guns, gun-mountings, 
torpedoes, and electrical instruments and machines he 
will regard as special types, but differing no whit in 
principle from the primitive stock. Mystery will dis- 
appear. At present it is an unfortunate thing that 
departmental jealousy leads the members of each and 
every department of the Service to make a mystery of 
their particular speciality. The Gunnery Lieutenant, 
Torpedo Lieutenant, Engineer, and Marine Officer each 
resent discussion by " outsiders " of any point in con- 
nection with their speciality, as a piece of unwarrantable 
presumption, with the result that each knows all about 
his own job, and pursues it diligently, takic^ care not to 
poach on anybody else's preserves, but without any 
regard as to whether the Service might not gain in 
efficiency by a little more co-operation and collaboration. 

From one point of view they are right in being 
exclusive, because they know that no one else knows 

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anything about their work, and therefore discussion 
with " outsiders " is mere waste of breath, but in future 
all this will be changed. Specialities will disappear ; 
the Naval Officer of the future will see no greater differ- 
ence between a gun-mounting and a torpedo, than an 
Engineer sees between the main engines and the feed 

However, although speciali ties will disap pear, it will 
always be necessary to have " cac perts " in each depart- 
ment. We shall still require our Lieutenants G., T., 
and E. ; but as at the present time when a Lieutenant G. 
is promoted to Commander he drops the G., so also it 
seems logical to conclude that the future Lieutenant E. 
on promotion to Commander should drop the E. 

It is absolutely safe to predict that the Naval Officer 
of 50 years hence will smile when he reads that his 
forefathers had to have an officer of Commander's rank 
appointed to a ship solely for charge of the main engines. 
Foreigners gasp when they hear that Lieutenants of two 
or three years standing command oiu- destroyers ; in 
other navies destroyers are usually commanded by 
Captains de Corvette ; and then we smite when we 
remember youngsters like Lieutenant Rombulow-Pearse 
of the " Sturgeon," who rescued the crew of the sinking 
" Decoy " in a gale of wind, with only his small whaler 
to help him, and with the loss of only one man, who 
disappeared nobody knows how. 

The ideal complement of officers of the future there- 
fore will be : i Captain, i Commander, i Lieutenant G., 
I Lieutenant E., i Lieutenant T., i Lieutenant M., 

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I Lieutenant N., i Lieutenant P., and as many other 
watchkeepers as necessary. 

Enough has been said in the meantime to show how 
completely the new system of entry and training of 
officers has remodelled the British Navy, and it is with 
the object of using the case of the officers as an argument 
in considering the case of the men, that it has been dilated 
on at such length. 

State Education in the Navy. 

{This Paper teas prepared in 1902 under great obUgationt 

to Mr. y. R. ThursJUld.) 

Everyone must now feel that the new system of Entry 
and Education of Naval Officers must have a fair trial, 
and all reasonable people will hold that it deserves one. 

There still remains to be faced an argimient which 
is certain to appeal to democratic sentiment. Broadly 
stated, it is this — that the new system, as at present 
organised, must of necessity take all officers of the Navy 
from among the sons of parents vAm can afford to spend 
about ^120 a year on their sons from the age of 12} 
until they become Lieutenants at the age of about 20, 
or even over. In other words, the <^ficers of the Navy 
will be drawn exclusively from the well-to-do classes. 

Democratic sentiment will wreck the present system 
in the long run, if it is not given an outlet. But let us 
take the far higher ground of efficiency : is it wise or 
expedient to take our Nelsons from so narrow a class ? 

Surely some small percentage of promising and intelli- 
gent boys from the other classes could be secured and 

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(if caught early enough, as is now the case) trained to be 
agicert and gentlemen by the time th^ are grown up. 

Nor is it the money barrier alone which enJudes 
them. An exclusive system of nomination is distasteful, 
if not alien, to the idemocratic sentiment. Combined 
with the cost of the subsequent training, X)ur present 
system absolutely excludes all but a very small fraction 
of the population from servii^ the King as naval officers. 
It admits the duke's son if he is fit, but it excludes the 
cook's son whether he is fit or not. It ought to admit 
both, but only if both are fit. The cook's son may not 
often be fit, but when he is, why exclude him ? Brains, 
character, and manners are not the occlusive endowment 
of those whose parents can a£ford to spend £t ,000 on their 

There seems to be only one way of solving this problem. 
Initial fitaess^mustbe j^uied, as at present, by careful 
selection at the outset, and if the promise is not fulfilled 
as time goed oh, fiitEIess exclusion, whether of duke's 
son or of cook's son, must be the inflexible rule. But 
do not exclude for poverty alone, either at the outset or 
aftenrards. Let every. $t boy have his c^ce, irrespec- 
tive of the depth of his parents* purse. This might, of 
course, be done by a liberal system of reduced fees for 
cadets, midshipmen, and sub-lieutenants whose parents 
were in poor circumstances. But in the first place 
there would be a certain element of invidiousness in the 
selection of the recipients of the national boumty, and, 
in the second, mischievous class distinctioDS would 
inevitably arise amoi^ the cadets themselves — between 
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those who were supported wholly or partially by the 
State and those who were not. It is most essential that 
there should be no such distinctions — that the cadets 
should be taught to look up only to those who are eminent 
in brains, character, and manners, and to look down only 
on those who are idle, vicious, vulgar, or incorrigU)ly 
stupid. Now, a common maintenance by the State 
would put them all on a common level of equality. 
Though the additional cost to the State would doubtless 
be great, the result would be well worth the eitra 

The quarter of a million sterling required would be 
lost and unnoticeable in the millions of the Education 
Vote, yet it would be worth all the millions of the Educa- 
tion Vote if it makes the Navy more efficient, because 

The British Nation Floats on the British Navy. 
It would put the Navy once for all on a basis as broad as 
the nation ; it would immeasurably widen the area of 
selection, and place at the disposal of the Admu-alty all 
the intellect and all the character of all classes of the 

The Nhw Naval Education. 

Masts and sails disappeared irretrievably with the 
demand for high speed. 

Now, what went with them ^ Why I The education 
that the sole use of sail power gave to the eye, brain, and 
body, in battling with the elements I 

It was a marvellous education which we had in the 
pure sailing days I 



One was alert by instinct I You never knew vktt 
might happen I A topsail-sheet canTing away, or a 
weather brace going, or a sudden shift of wind, or 
squall I 

One thus got habituated to being quick and resourceful, 
and it was more or less a slur and a stigma not to be so 1 
Also (as Officer of the Watch) men*s lives toere in your 
hands ! For instance with men on the yards, and any 
lubberly stupidity with braces or helm ! 

Both for Officers and Men then we no longer have this 
magnificent education by the Elements I 

Steam has practically annihilated the wind and the 

What are we to do to get the same ready and resource- 
ful qualities by other methods ? 

The answer is : The Gymnasium, Boat Sailing, the 
Destroyer, the Submarine, and the Engine Room. 

Apparently, we are in this country in the infancy of 
Gymnastics for the trainii^ of the body when one reads 
of the Swedish system and its results. (" Mem sana in 
corpore sano.") 

The one solitary element in which we are behind, 
and must be behind all nations, is " Men." We have no 
Conscription with the unlimited resources it gives 1 
How should we counterbalance this want ? " By intro- 
ducing every possible form of labour-saving appliance," 
regardless of cost, weight, and space ; for instance, is it 
really impossible to devise mechanical arrangements for 
feeding the fires with coal instead of usii^ the mass of 
men we now are obliged to employ for the purpose ? 
163 M a 

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The coal is got out of the bunkers in the same way now 
as in the first steamship ever built. It is not only we 
thereby save men — ^we ensure success (for the next 
Naval War will be largely a question of physical endurance 
and nerves). 

" A machine has no nerves and doesn't tire I " 

The other point necessary to consider is " not to 
waste educated labour, and to utilise and cultivate 
specialities I " 

The present system of education both of Men and 
Officers is that we all go in at one end like the pigs of 
every type at Chicago, and come out a uniform pattern 
of sausages at the other I 

Thus, what we want is, above all things, a " Corps 
d'Elite " of gun-firers I I should call them the " Bidl's 
Eye Party " (and give them all loj. a day extra pay I) 

They must do nothing else but practise hittii^; the 
target and lose their pay when they don't I 

Where would your violin player be if he didn't daily 
practise ? And if you made him pick oakum, where 
would his touch be i 

This is what Paganini said : " The first day I omit 
to practise the violin I notice it myself I 

" The second day my friends notice it 1 1 

" The third day the public notice it 1 1 1 " 

But if the " Bull's Eye Party " are to hit the enemy 
as desired (and as they can be made competent to do I) 
then the Admirab and Captains, and all others, must 
equally play their parts to allow the " Bull's Eye Party " 
to get within range and sight of the enemy. Their 

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education is therefore equally important. Scripture 
comes in here appropriately, " The eye cannot say to the 
hand, nor the hand to the foot," etc., etc. 

To put the matter very briefly : 

*' The education of all our Officers, w ithput_.distipction, 
muBT'be'rahbdened to c ope ^ t h , ro achinery, instead of 
sails I '* 

The Gymnasium, the Engine-room, the Destroyer, 
the Submarine, and Bent _Sa|ling must be our great 
educational instruments. 

Not for a single moment is it put forward that a year 
in a woikshoii and a year in ^n engjne-room will make 
an efficient Engineer Officer I It is long experience in 
such work that does that I — as in every other thing I 
But in a small way, the ai^ument of the abolition of the 
old Navigating Class applies here very forcibly. It was 
said their abolition would be absolutely fatal to the 
efficient navigation of the Fleet. 

But what has been the result ? There hare been 
fewer cases of bad navigation since the old Nav^ting 
Class was done away with than in the whole history of 
the Navy 1 And with this immense gain — that the 
knowledge of navigation is now widely diffused through 
the Fleet. 

One can suppose cases where it would be of the utmost 
value to us were ei^ineering knowledge and the handling 
of mechanical appliances more widely diffused amongst 
our Officers I 

But that is not lAe vital point t- The vital point is 
that were a Midshipman to be continuously sernng in 

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the engine-room of Destroyers and larger vessels (con- 
tinuou^y under weigh) at high speeds, he would get a 
training assimilating in its nature to that marvellous 
training of the old sailing days, which kept the wits of 
Officer of the Watch in the utmost state of tension, and 
produced the splendid specimens of readiness and 
resource which we read of in the sea Officers of Nelson's 
time and later 1 

TsAlNmo OF BoTS : No masts and sails — Gymnauum 
— Rifle and gun practice — Boat sailing — ^Little or no 
school. (No Binomial Theorem) — Destroyer work for 
sea-sickness — Sent straight from training-ships to hot 
foreign stations on the hot-house principle before 
bedding-out — Select from the very beginning the good 
shots and the smart signalmen and train them 

Training op the Men : Re-model instruction in 
Gunnery and Torpedo Schools — " Corps d'EUte " of 
three classes of (i) gun firers or " Marksmen " ; (2) gun 
loaders ; (3) gun manipulators — From the time the hoy 
enters the Navy in the trainii^-ship till he gets his 
pension, the sole object to be to sdect, train, and improve 
and retain " the good shot," and all training sub- 
ordinated to this ! 

Training op Ofpicbrs : Return to early entry at 12 
years of age — ^A much lower standard of entrance, 
educational examination, and a high standard of physical 
entrance examination — Colloquial French oblatory, no 
grammar, and no other language, dead or alive I — ^A 
(X)nU>ined course of '* Britannia " and " Keyham " 

"^ Digitized by 



Colleges vith at least two years of engine-room and shop 

work and Destroyer practice. 
These great changes are not fanciful ideas I 
The stubborn fast that we cannot provide what is 

required on the presmt system forces the change both 

as regards Officers as well as Men and Boys. 

Naval Officsrs' Training. 

Some Opiniom on the Admiralty Sdieme {lyoi). 

I. Admiral Lord Charles Bbkbsford. 

In 1902 Lord Charles Beresford, in an interview on 

the then recent Admiralty memorandum on the subject 

of the entry, training, and employment of officers and 

men of the Royal Navy, said : — 

" The stron^^est opponent of the scheme will acknow- 
ledge that it IS a bnlliant and statesmanlike effort to 
grapple with a problem upon the sound settlement ofwhkh 
defends the futttre efficiency of the British Navy. To-day 
the commander ol fleets must possess a greater com- 
bination of characteristics than has ever oefore be^ 
required of him. He must not only be a bom leader of 
men, but he must have the practical scientific training 
whidi the development of mechanical invention renders 
an absolute and mdispensable essential. The executive 
ofiicer of to-day should possess an intimate knowledge 
of all that relates to his profession. Up to now he has 
been fairly educated in the different branches. The 
most important, however — in that we depend entirely 
upon it — that relating to steam and machinery, has been 
sadly neglected. Tne duties of this branch have been 
delegated to, and well and loyally performed by^a body 

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of officers existing for this special purpose, and there 
have been two results. The executive officer has remained 

r rant of otie of the most m^xtrtant parts of his prof ession ; 
engineer officer has never received that reaction to 
which the in^ortancecf his duties and responstbiUties to 
justly entitled him. The Board of Admiralty have now 
unanimously approved a plan which provides that 
naval ofHcers shall have an opportimit^ of adding to their 
professional attainments the essential knowledge of 
marine engineering. Further than this, the Board have 
recognised that ute present status of naval engineer 
officers could not continue, in fairness either to themselves 
or to the Service. The abolition of distinction regarding 
entry has settled this point once coid for ever, and it u 
satisfactory to find that constituted authority has taken the 
matter in hand before it became a political or party question. 

" There seems to be a doubt as to whether it will be 
possible under the new scheme for an executive officer 
to have the knowledge he should possess of marine 
ennneering. There is no cast-iron secret or mystery 
with regard to marine engineering, as some seem to 
■inugine. This being so, there is no reason why lieu- 
' tenants (£.) should not be just as good and useful experts 
in their speciality as the gunnery, torpedo, or navigating 
lieutenant of the present day, without in the sUghtest 
degree detracting from their ability to become excellent 
executive officers. It is imperative that all officers of 
the present day should be well acquainted with all the 
general duties connected with the management of ships 
and fleets. The wider and fuller the education the naval 
officer receives in matters relating to science within his 
own profession, the more likely the Service is to produce 
men who will be capable of seeing that the fleet in its 
entirety is perfect for its work, and that there is no weak 
link in the chain that may jeopardise the whole. 

" The memo, referring to the marines will be, I believe, 
received with the greatest satisfaction by that splendid 

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corps as a v4iole as by the Service as a whole. It it a 
mmvel that the xeal and abiMty of the officers of the Royal 
Marines has not been effectively utilisealong ago. Many 
important positions will now be open to them, and 
they wiUfea that they are taking a real part in the executive 
toorking of the skip and fleet vMch is so proud to oton them 
as a con^onent part. It is to be hoped the way will 
now be open to give them appointments as general 
officers commanding at many of the naval bases. No 
part of the scheme will give the Service in its entirety 
more sincere pleasure than the improvements promised 
with regard to the position of the warrant officers. 
Promotion of warrant officersyto lieutenant's rank has 
long been urged hy those who argued that the lower 
de(£ were fufly entitled to a right that had from time 
immemorial been engi^ed by the non-commissioned 
ranks of the sister Sovice. Placing the signal ratings 
on an equaUty with gunnery and torpedo ratings is of 
far more importance than is generally realised. The 
vital necessity of a good line of communication and good 
signalmen has never been thoroughly appreciated. 

" / consider the return to the early age of entry of is^isdte 
vabte. It has not yet been decided whether on first 
going to sea midshipmen will be appointed to ships 
ordirarily in commission or to ships specially in com- 
mission for training purposes. I am strongly of opinion 
that it would be by for the best plan to send them to 
learn their duties in the ordinary ships of the r^ularly 
commissioned fleet. With rea^A to the pn^ioeed 
arrangement of nomination to branches, I consider it a 
fair contract, and it keeps the power of appointment to 
the various branches in the hands of the constituted 
authorities. In my opinion this gives the best young 
officer the foirest chance of holding the best positions. 

" In conclusion, I am of the opinion that the plan is 
one that has been thorot^hly matured and well tnou^t 
out, and I believe that M^en its details have been definitely 


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settled it will make more complete the well-being, content- 
ment, and efficiency of that Service on which die safety 
of the empire absolutely depends." 

2. Sm John Hopkins. 

I succeeded Admiral Sir John Hopkins, one of the 
most distinguished Officers in the Navy, in seven 
different appointments— as Head of the Gunnery School 
at Portsmouth, as Director of Naval Ordnance at the 
Admiralty, as Admiral Superintendent of Portsmouth 
Dockyard, as Controller of the Navy, as 3rd Sea Lord, 
as Commander-in-Chief in North America, and as 
Commander-in-Chief in the Mediterranean. In each 
of these appointments force of circumstances compelled 
me to have a revolution. So the following spontaneous 
letter, which he wrote me long after, is the more gratifying 
and shows his magnanimity : 

Greatbridcb, Rohsby, 

i6lk April, 1906. 

My Deak Fisher, 

There is a small band of writii^ critics " making 
mouths and ceasing not " at the Education Scheme ; but 
let them not trouble you. The wonder will be in twenty 
years' time how such a bold forecast could have been 
made, that produced such excellent results ; and, in my 
opinion, the " Common Entry " man will be as jg;reat a 
success as the best friends of the Service could wish. 
Believe me, 

Sincerely yours, 

(Signed)AJ- O. Hopkins. 

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3. Chibp Inspbctok of Macbinbrt, Sir Henry 
Bbnbow, K.C.B., D.S.O., R.N. 

HABBsn, DoBMAir's Fake, 


20db Api-a, 1908. 
DBAS Snt, 

Permit me to congratulate you on the success of the 
new system of Entry and Education of Naval Cadets, 
which has alw^ ehcited my wannest Bynq)athy as the 
only means of doing awf^ with class prejudice. A 
relative and namesake of mine, a Lieutenant in the 
Service, only the other day spoke to me most highly of 
die mental and physical devetopmoit of the present-day 
Cadets, and remarked how very favourably they compared 
with the Cadets entered under the old T^me. 
I remain, dear Sir, 
Yours faithAilly, 

Hbnrt Benbow. 
Admiral of the Fleet 

Sir John Fisher, G.C.B., O^. 

A Natal Candidais's Essay. 

I give here an essay written on aoth February, 1908, 
by a candidate for entry at Osborne as a Naval Cadet. 
His age was 12^ ; his height four foot nothii^. llie 
subjects were suddenly set to the candidates by the 
Interview Committee, and they were allowed only ten 
minutes to write the essay in. The original of this 
essay I sent to King Edward. 

What Nation ought we to protect cunehet mottlt^mut 


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" In my opinion we should protect ourselves most 
against Germany. 

" The most important reason is that they have the 
second largest Navy in the world ; to which ^their Navy) 
they are rapidly addine. They are also building three 
ships equal to our * Dreadnought.' Their Army also 
is very formidable ; though they are suffering from 
flat-feet. It is also rumoured that the present German 
Emperor has a feud against King Edward ; namely, 
when they were young King Edward punched the 
German Emperor's head; how far that is true, I dtm't 

" I always think that Englishmen and Germans are, 
more or less, natural enemies. One of the reasons for 
this is, I think, that Englishmen and Germans are so 
different ; for most of the Germans I've met in Switzer- 
land were not quarter so energetic as our English friends. 
They (the Germans) would never go much above the 
snow line. Also I think we rather despise the Germans, 
because of their habit of eating a lot. The Germans 
also would like a few of our possessions." 

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I BBOOT thu chapter with a letter written to me on 
^ril iSth, 1918, by Colonel Sir Maurice Hankey. 
Secretary to the War Cabinet :— 

Mt Dear Lord Fishbk> 

Last n^t I dined with Lord Ether. He showed me 
letters ot yours dated 1904 describing in detail the 
German Submarine Campaign of 1917. It is the meet 
amazing thing I have ever r»d ; not one letter only, but 

Also some astonishing remarks of touts about the 
Generals who oi^t to man the War Oflice in case of 
war. All men mio have come to the top were your 
nominees. Finally, General Plumer (whom few people 
knew about) you picked out for Quartermaster-General, 
with this remark : " Every vote i^ainst Plumer is a 
vote for paper boots and insufficient shells I "^ 

Priceless, the whole thing I Neck-busy though I am, 
I have come to the Office early to pay this tribute of my 
undyiiu admiration, and to beg you to get hold of these 
astounmng documents for your Memoirs. But anyhow, 
they will appear in Lord Ether's Memoirs, I suppose. 
Yours ever, 
- (Signed) M. P. A. Handy. 

1 For then pradi c tteni, see Letter to Lord Biher of (?) Jan., 1904 
" "p. 173- 

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caught with our breeches down just as the Russians have 
been t 

And then, my dear Friend, you have the astounding 
audacity to say to me, " I presume ymi only (hmk they 
(the submarines) can act on the defetmve I "... . Why, 
my dear fellow 1 not take the offensive ? Good Lord I 
if our Admiral is worth his salt, he will tow his 
submarines at i8 knots speed and put them into the 
hostile Fort (like ferrets after the rabbits 1) before war 
is officially declared, Just as the Japanese acted before 
the Russian Naval Officers knew that war was declared I 

In all seriousness I don't think it is even faintly 
realised — 

The immeme imperuUng revolution which the tubmarinet 
toiU effect as offensive viet^ons of loar. 

When you calmly sit down and work out what will 
happen in the narrow waters of the Channel and the 
Mediterranean — how totally the submarines will aUer 
the effect of Gibraltar, Port Said, Lemnos, and Malta, 
it makes one's hair stand on end ! 

I hope you don't think this letter too personal I 
Ever yours, 

J. A. FiSHBR. 

Note made on January 5th, 1904 : 

Satan disguised as an Angel of Light wouldn't succeed 
in persuading the Admiralty or the Navy that in the 
course of some few years Submarines will prevent any 
Fleet remaining at sea continuously either in the Medi- 
terranean or the English Channel. 

Now follows a paper on " The Effect of Submarine 
Boats," which I wrote while I was Commander-in-Chief 
at Portsmouth, October, 1903. 

Thae remarks can only be fully t^preciated by those toho 
witnessed the Flotilla of Siumarine Boats now at Ports' 
mouth practising out in the open sea. 



that the submarine willaccgan^iah-l-(I have written a 

S^er on liSa, but it*s~S5"wment I am keeping it 1) 
ere, just to take a simple instance, is the batUeship 
" Empress of India/' engaged in manoeuvres and knowing 
of the proximity of Submarines, the Flagship of the 
Second Admiral of the Home Fleet nine miles beyond 
tlie Nab Light (out in the open sea), so self-confident of 
safety and so oblivious of the possibilities of modem 
warrare that the Admiral is smoking his cigarette, the 
Captain is calmly seeing defaulters down on the half- 
deck, no one caring an iota for what is ^ing on, and 
suddenly they see a Whitehead torpedo miss their stem 
by a few feet 1 And how fired ? From a submarine of 
the " pre-Adamite " period, small, slow, badly fitted, 
with no periscope at ou— it had been carried away by a 
destroyer lying over her, fishing for her 1 — and yet 
this submanne followed that batueship for a solid two 
hours under water, coming up gingerly about a mile 
off, every now and then (like a beaver I), just to take a 
fresh compass bearing of her prey, and then down 
again > 

Remember, that this is done (and I want specially to 
emphasise the point), with the Lieutenant in command 
of the boat out in her for the first time in his life on his 
own account, and half the crew never out before either I 
vriiy, it's wonderful I And so what results may we cq)ect 
witK bigger and faster boats and periscopes more power- 
ful than the naked eye (such as the latest pattern one I 
saw the other day), and with experienced officers and 
crews, and with nests of these submarines acting to- 
gether ? 

I have not disguised my opinion in season and out 
of season as to the essential, imperative, immediate, vital, 
pressing, urgent (I can't think of any more adjectives 1) 
necessity for more submarines at once, at the very least 
25 in addition to those now ordered and building) and a 
hundred more as soon as practicable, or we wall be 


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It 18 an historical fact that the British Navy stubbornly 
resists chai^. 

A First Sea Lord told me on one occasion~that there 
were no torpedoes when he came to sea, and ^ he didn't 
see why the devil there should be any of the beastly 
thirijgs now ! 

Inis was d propos of my attractiag the attention of his 
serene and contented mind to the fact that we hadn't got 
any torpedoes at that time in the British Navy, and that 
a certain Mr. Whitehead (with whom I was acquainted) 
had devised an automobile torpedo, costing only ,£$00, 
that would make a hole as big as his LordMip's carnage 
(then standing at the door) in the bottom of the strongest 
and bigeest ship in the world, and she would go to the 
bottom m about five minutes. 

Thirty-five years after this last interview, on Sep- 
tember 4th, 1903, at II a.m., the ironclad " Belleisle," 
having had several extra bottoms put on her and strength- 
ened in every conceivable manner that science could 
suggest or money accomplish, was sent to the bottom of 
Portsmouth Harbour by this very Whitehead automobile 
torpedo in seven minutes. 

This Whitehead torpedo can be carried with facility 
in Submarine Boats, and it has now attained such a range 
and such accuracy (due to the marvellous adaptation of 
the gyroscope), tlut even at two miles' range it possesses 
a greater ratio of power of vitally injuring a ship in the 
line of battle than does the most accurate gun. This 
is capable of easy demonstration (if anyone doubts it). 

There is this immense fundamental diiference be- 
tween the automobile torpedo and the gun — ^the torpedo 
has no trajectory : it travels horizontal^ and hits below 
water, so all its hits are vital hits ; but not so the gun — 
only in a few places are gun hits vital, and those places 
are armoured. It is not feasible to armour the bottoms 
of ships even if it were effectual — ^which it is not. 

But the pith and manow of the whole matter lies in 

177 K 

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the fact that the Submarine Boat whidi carries this 
automobile torpedo is up to the present date absolutely 
unattackable. When you see Battleships or Cruisers, 
or Destroyers, or Torpedo Boats on the horizon, you can 
send others after them to attack them or drive them 
awa^ I You see them — ^you can fire at them — ^you can 
avoid them — you can chase 'them — but with the Sub- 
marine Boat you can do nothing I You can't fight them 
with other Submarine Boats — they can't see each 
other I 

Now for the practical bearii^ of all this, and the special 
manner it affects the Submarine Boat and the Army and 
the Navy — for they are all inextricably mixed up together 
in this matter : — 

As regards the Navy, it must revolutionise Naval 
Tactics tor this simple reason — dut the present battle 
formation of shlpr in- s- wigle Jioe f tr esen ts a ta^;et of 
such a length' that the chances'are itlO£|ether in favour of 
the Wh itehsftd trnpedD hittirtg some ship in the line even 
when projected from a distance of several miles. This 
applies specially to its use by the Submarine Boat ; but 
in addition, these boats can, in operating defensively, 
come with absolute invisibility within a few hundreid 
yards to discharge the projectile, not at random amongst 
the crowd of vessels but with certainty at the Admind's 
ship for instance, or at any other specific vessel desired 
to be sent to the bottom. 

It affects the Army, because, imagine even one Sub- 
marine Boat with a flock of transports in sight loaded 
each with some two or three thousand troops 1 Imaeine 
the effect of one such transport going to the bottom m a 
few seconds with its living freight I 

Even the bare thought maxes invasion impossible 1 
Fancy 100,000 helpless, huddled up troops afloat in 
frightened transports with these invisible demons known 
to be near. 

Death near — momentarily — sudden — awfiil — 


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invisible — unavoidable I Nothing ooncdvable more 
demoralising I 

It affects the existence of the Enq>ire, because just as 
ve were in peril by the non-adoption of the breech- 
loading gun until after every Foreign nation had it, and 
just as we were in peril when Napoleon the Third built 
' La Gloire " and other French ironclads, while we were 
still stubbornly buildii^ wooden three-deckers, and 
just 88 we were in peril when, before the Boer War, we 
were waiting to perfect our ammunition and in conse- 
quence had practically no ammunition at all, so are we 
in peril now by only havii^ 20 per cent, of our very 
minimum requirements in Submarine Boats, because 
we are waiting for perfection I We foi^et that " half a 
loaf is better than no bread " — ^we strain at the gnat of 
perfection and swallow the camel of unreadiness 1 We 
shall be foimd unready once too often I 

In 1918 I wrote the following letter to a &iend on 
" Submarines and Oil Fuel." 

You ask for information in r^ard to a prophecy I 
made before the War in relation to Submarines, because, 
you say, that my statement made in 1912 that Submarines 
would utterly change Naval Warfare is now making a 
stir. However, I made that same statement in 1904, 
fourteen years ago. 

I will endeavour to give you a brief, but succinct, 
synopsis of the whole matter. I have to go some way 
back, but as you quite correctly surmise the culmination 
of my beliefs since 1902 was the paper on Submarine 
Warfare which I prepared six months before the 
War.i .... 

In May* 1912 (I am woiUng^backwarda^, Mr. .^qrnth, 
' " ' t Mm ■ — - 

the Prime Minister, and Mr. Churchill, Fuvt Lord of the 
Admiralty, came to Naples, where I then was, and I was 

■ See below, p. 181. 

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invited to be Chairman of a Royal Commission on Oil 
Fuel for the Navy, and on Oil Engines. What most 
moved me to acceptance was to push the Submarine, 
because oil and the oil engine had a special bearing on 
its development. 

Continuing my march backwards in regard to the 
Submarine, there was a cessation in the development of 
the Submarine after I left the Admiralty as First Sea 
Lord on January 25th, 1910. When I returned as First 
Sea Lord to the Admiralty in October, 1914, there were 
fewer Submarines than when I (eft the Admiralty in 
January, 1910, and the one man incomparably fitted to 
develop the Submarine had been cast away in a third- 
class Cruiser stationed in Crete. No wonder I An 
Admiral, holding a very high appointment afloat, derided 
Submarines as playthings 1 

In one set of manceuvres the young officer command- 
ing a Submarine, having for the third time successfully 
torpedoed the hostile Admiral's Flagship, hiunbly said 
so to the Admiral by signal, and suggested the Flagship 

f;oing out of action. The answer he got back by signal 
rom the Admiral was : " You be damned I " 

I am still going on tracing back the Submarine. In 
1907, King Edward went on ooard the " Dreadnought " 
for a cruise and witnessed the manceuvres of a Submarine 
Flotilla. I then said to His Majesty : " The Submarine 
will be the Battleship of the future 1 " 

In February, 1904, Admiral Count Montecuccoli, the 
Austrian Mimster of Marine, invited himself to stay with 
me at Portsmouth, where I was then Commanoer-in- 
Chief. He had been Commander-in-Chief of the Austrian 
Navy at Pola when I was Commander-in-Chief in the 
Mediterranean. We became very great friends out there. 
The Austrian Fleet gave us a most cordial reception. 
He also was an ardent believer in the Submarine. That's 
why he invited himself to stay, but I refused to let him 
see our Submarines at Portsmouth, which were then 

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advancing by leaps and bounds. Admiral Bacon was 
then the admirable Captain in charge of Submarines, 
and he did more to develop the Submarine than anyone 
living. The Submarine is not the weapon of the weak. 
Had it only been pro[>erly used and developed, it's the 
weapon of the strong, if you use your Naval Supremacy 
properly, and 

seize the exits of the enemy, and make a blockade effectual 
by Submarines and Mines, tchich our predominant and 
overwhelming mwal superiority renders feasible. 

All that was required to meet a German Submarine 
Menace was the possession of Antwerp, the Belgian 
Coast, and the Baltic. We could quite easily have 
accomplished these three objects. 

Nearly three months before the War, before the 
meeting of the Committee of Imperial Defence held on 
May 14th, 1914, 1 sent the Prime Minister the following 
Memorandum which I had written in the previous 
January ; and added : — 

The Submarine is the Coming Type of War Vessel 
FOR Sea Fighting. 

^ut for that consummation to be reached we must 
perfect the oil engine and we must store oil. 

^l e ie is a strong animus against the submarine — of 
course there is I 

An ancient Admiralty Board minute described the 
introduction of the steam engine as fzttH to England's 

Another Admiralty Board minute vetoed iron ships, 
because iron sinks and wood floats 1 

The whole Navy objected to breech-loading guns, and 
in consequence sure disaster was close to us for years 
and years. 


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There was virulent opposition to the water-t ube b oiler 
(fancy putting the &re wnere the water ou^t to be/iihd 
the water where the 6re should be I) 

The turbine was said bv eminent marine engineers to 
have an " insuperable ana vital defect which renders it 
inadmissible as a practical marine engine — its vast number 
of blades — it is only a toy." 80 per cent, of the steam- 
power of the world is now driving turbines. 

Wireless was voted damnable by all the armchair 
sailors when we put it on the roof of the Admiralty, 
and yet we heard what one ship (the " Ar^U ") at 
Bombay was saying to another (the " Black Pnnce '^ at 

" Flying machines are a physical impossibility/' said 
a very great scientist four years ago. To-day they are as 
plentiful as sparrows. 

" Submarines are only playthings I " was the official 
remark of our Chief Admiral afloat only a little while ago, 
and yet now submarines are talked of as presently oustmg 

The above texts, extracted from comparatively modem 
naval history (history is a record of exploded ideas 1), 
should make anyone chaty of ridiculii^ tlie writer when 
he repeats : 


And what is it that the coming of the submarine really 
means ? It means that the whole foundation of our 
traditional naval strategy, which served us so well in the 
past, has been broken down ! The foundation of that 
strategy was blockade. The Fleet did not exist merely 
to win battles — that was the means, not the end. The 
ultimate purpose of the Fleet was to make blodtade 
possible for us and impossible for our enemy. Where 
that situation was set up we could do what we liked with 
him on the sea, and, despite a state of war, England grew 
steadily richer. But with the advent of the long-range 


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oce^-going submarine that has all y)ne 1 SurAwe ships 
can POjgjJKef e ldSer nuiin tau n or preven t..bIockade. and 
with the conception of blockade are broken up aU the 
ct^nsraucnccB, direct and'indir^, fhaf used to now from 
it. All our old ideas of strategy are simmering in the 
melting pot I - Can we get anytmng out ortt'vrtiich wUl 
let us know where we are and restore to us something of 
our former grip ? It is a question that must be faced. 

Sea-fighting of to-day, or at any time, entails the 
removal of ^e enemy's sea forces. If , as is maintained, 
the submarine proves itself at once the most efficient 
factor for this purpose and also the most dlfCcult' s^a" 
force to remove, In'ils clear our minds of all previous 
obsessions and acknowledge the facts once and for all. 

Hostile Subhabines. 

// has to be freely acknowle^ed that at the present time 
no means exist of preventing nostiU submarines emerging 
from their oton ports and cruising more or less at toiU. 

It is, moreover, only barely possible that, in the future, 
mining and other blocking operations on a veiy extensive 
scale may so develop as to render their exit veiy hazar- 
dous ; but it is plain that such operations would require 
a large personnel, unceasing energy and vigilance, and 
an immense quantity of constantly replaceable materials. 

The Submarine and Commerce. 

Again, the question arises as to what a submarine can 
do against a merchant ship when she has found her. She 
cannot capture the merchant ship ; she has no spare 
hands to put a prize crew on board ; little or nothing 
would be gained by disablii^ her engines or propeller ; 

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she cannot convoy her into harbour ; and, in fact, it is 
impossible for the submarine to deal with commerce in 
the light and provisions of accepted international law. 
Under these circumstances, is it presumed that the 
hostile submarine will disregard such law and sink 
any vessel heading for a British conmiercial port 
and certainly those that are armed or carrying contra- 
band ? 

There is nothing else the submarine can do except 
sink her capture, and it mtist therefore be admitted that 
provided it is done, and however inhuman and barbarous 
It may appear) this submarine menace is a truly terrible 
one for British commerce and Great Britain alike, for no 
means can be suggested at present of meeting it except 
by reprisals. Alfthat would be known would be that a 
certain ship and her crew had disappeared, or some of 
her boats would be picked up with a few survivors to 
tell the tale. Such a tale would fill the world with horror, 
and it is freely acknowledged to be an altogether bar- 
barous method of warfare ; but, again, if it is done by 
the Germans the only thing would be to make reprisals. 
The essence of war is violence, and moderation in war is 

It has been suggested that it should be obligatory for 
a submarine to fire a warning gun, but is such a proceed- 
ing practical ? We must bi^ in mind that modem 
submarines are faster on the surfeice than the majority of 
merchantmen, and will not necessarily need to dive at 
all. Therefore, as the submarine would in most cases be 
sighted, and as she has no prize crew to put on board, 
the warning gun is useless, as the only uiing the sub- 
marine could do would be to sink the enemy ; also, the 
apparently harmless merchant vessel may be armed, in 
which case the submarine may but have given herself 
a^ray if she did not sink her. 

Tht subject is, indeed, one that bristles with great 
difficulties, and it is highly desirable that the conduct of 


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submarines in molesting commerce should be thoroughly 
considered. Above all, it is one of overwhelming interest 
to neutrals. One flag is very much like anotner seen 
against the light throueh a periscope, should he have 
thought it necessary to dive ; and the fear is natural that 
the only thing the oflicer of the hostile submarine would 
make sure of would be that the flag seen was not that of 
his own country. 

Moreover, under numerous circumstances can a 
submarine allow a merchant ship to pass immolested ? 
Harmless trader in appearance, in reality she may be one 
of the numerous fleet auxiliaries, a mine-layer, or carrying 
troops, and so on. Can the submarine come to the 
surface to inquire and lose all chance of attack if the 
vessel shoula prove to be faster than she is ? The 
apparent merchant ship may also be armed. In this 
hght, indeed, the recent arming of our British merchant- 
men is unfortunate, for it gives the hostile submarine an 
excellent excuse (if she needs one) for sinking them ; 
namely, that of self-defence against the guns of the 
mercliant ship. 

What can be the answer to all the foregoing but that 
(barbarous and inhuman as, we again repeat, it may 
appear), if the submarine is used at dl against commerce, 
she must sink her captures ? 

For the prevention of submarines preving on our 
commerce, it is above all necessary that merchant shipping 
should take every advantage of our favourable geograph- 
ical position, and that we should make the Straits of 
Dover as difficult as we possibly can. 

It is not proposed here to enter into the technical 
details of such arrangements ; but even after every 
conceivable means h^ been taken, it must be con- 
ceded that there is at least a chance of submarines 
passing safely through ; while at night, or in thick 
weather, it is probabu that they would not fail to pass 
in safety. 


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I conclude with some details of British Subniariiiet 
before and during the War : — 

I. When I left the Admiralty in January, 1910 : 
Submarines ready for fighting 61 

Building and on order 13 

II. When I returned to the Admiralty, in October, 
1914, as First Sea Lord : 

Submarines fit for fighting 53 

Building and on order 21 

But of these 21, only c were any good 1 

2 were paid off as useless. 

3 sold to the Italians, not of use to us. 

4 sold to the French, not of use to us. 
7 of unsatisfactory design. 

16 leaving only 5 of oversea modem (" E ") Type. 

Nominally, there were 77 Submarines when I returned 
in October, 1914, but out of these 24 were useless, 
or had gone to the Antipodes, as follows : 

2 to Australia. 

3 to Hong Kong. 

I sold to Italy useless. 
8 " A " Class scrapped, 10 years old. 
10 " B " Class scrapped, 9 years old. 

77 — 24 B 53 total Submarines fit for Service when I 
returned in October, 1914. 

There were 61 Submarines efficient when I left the 
Admiralty in January, 1910. 

Of those that were on order when I returned, 14 were 

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of " G " Class, but were of an experimental tjrpe, and so 
were not ready till Jum^ 1916, or one year after the 
Submarines were ready which I ordered on my return 
to the Admiralty in October, 1914. 

Here may be stated the great service rendered by Mr. 
Schwab, of the Bethlehem Steel Wo^. I specially sent 
for him. I told him the ,very shortest time hitherto 
that a Submarine had been buih in was 14 months. 
Would he use his best endeavours to deliver in six 
months ? He delivered the first hatch m five months / 
And not only that, but they were of so efficient a 
type (" H " Class) that they came from America to the 
Dardanelles without escort, and were of inestimable 
service out there, and passed into the Sea of Marmora, 
and were most effective in sinking TmUsh Transports 
bringing munitions to Gallipoli. 

The type of Submarine (" H " Class) he built hold 
the field for their special attributes. I saw one in dock at 
Harwich that had been rammed by a Destroyer — I think 
a German Destroyer — and had the forepart of her taken 
clean away, and she got back to Harwich by herself 
all right. The Commander of her, an aged man, 
was in the Merchant Service. (What a lot we do indeed 
owe to the Merchant Service, and especially to those 
wonderful men in the Trawlers I) 

But Mr. Schwab did far more than what I have narrated 
above. He imdertook the delivery of a very important 
portion of the armament of the Monitors. 

The idea was followed up in making old Cruisers 

immune from German SubmArines— the " Grafton/* an 


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old type Cruiser (and so also the " Edgar "), thus Htted, 
was hit fair amidships by a torpedo from a German 
submarine off Gibraltar, and the Captain of the 
" Grafton " reported himself unhurt and going all the 
faster for it (as it had blown off a good bit of the hull I), 
and those vessels were ever so much the better sea boats 
for it ] 

It is lamentable that no heed was given to the great 
sagacity of Mr. Churchill in his special endeavour to give 
further application to this invention. 

In the Submarine Monitor Mi, which carries a 
i2-inch gun, and which is illustrated in this volume, we 
have the type of vessel I put before the Admiralty in 
Ai^ust, 1915. She is the forerunner of the Battleship 
of the future ; but her successors should be built in a 
much shorter time than she was. 

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How War and Peaceful Commerce mil be Revolutionised 
by the Oil Engine. 

On September 17th, 1912, at 3 ajn., I invited two very 
eminent experts, Sir Trevor Dawson and his coadjutor 
McKechnie, to leave their beds and come into my room 
to see an outline of the Fast Ship of the Future, both 
for War and Commerce, carrying sufficient fuel to go 
round the Earth with and with an increased capacity of 
30 per cent, as conq>ared with similar vessels of the 
same displacement using steam. At length a special 
Government Research Department has been set up to 
develop the Oil Engine, and a sum prohibitive in peace 
time has been cheerfully aa»rded by War reasoning to 
set up this establishment on a big basis. I reiterate 
what is said elsewhere, that the Oil Engine will revo- 
lutionise both War and Commerce when once it is per- 
fected — through the enormous gain it affords in space 
and smaller crews through riddance of stokeholds and 
firemen, and facility of re-fuelling and cleanliness and 
absence of funnels, etc., et&. 

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Here is a descriptive outline of H.M.S. " Incom- 
parable," as set forth in the early morning of September 
17th, 1912 : 

Really a Gem I She can be riddled and gutted outside 
the Central Diamond-shaped Armoured Citadel because 
nothing vital outside that Citadel I So lightly built 
shell weigh so little as to go Fast, with a hundred and 
fifty thousand horse power 1 Shell shake to pieces in 
about 10 years I What's the good of a warship lasting 
longer ? The d — d things get obsolete in about a 
year I 

Ten 16-inch guns to begin with (afterwards 20-inch 
guns) for main armament. 

Eight broadside Torpedo Tubes (21 -inch Torpedo). 

32 knots speed at least. 

16-inch armour on citadel and belt amidships, thinnii^ 
towards the end. 

850 feet long — ^to be afterwards i ,000 feet ; 86 feet wide. 

Four Torpedo Tubes each side to be well before the 
Citadel (submerged Tubes) so as not to interfere with 
machinery space. 

Quadruple screws. 

Anti-Submarine guns in small single turrets. 

A Turtle-backed armoured hull, with light steel 
uninflammable structure before and abaft the armoured 
Diamond-shaped Citadel. 

Two Conning Towers. 

Hydraulic crane each side (very low in height) for 
lifting boats. 

The l^ht central steel hollow mast only for wireless 



and for ventilation, niade of steel ribbon to wind up and 
down at will. 

Jam up the Citadel all that is possible right in centre 
of Hull, and squeeze the last inch in space so as to lessen 
amount of 1 6-inch armour. 

Curved thick armour deck. 

Ammunition service by Hydraulic power. 

Oil right fore and aft the whole ship. Enough to go 
round the earth I 

Very higjti double bottom — honeycombed. 

Coffer dams everywhere stuffed with corit. 

This, then, is the Fast Battle Cruiser " Incon^Mrable " 
of 32 knots speed and 20-inch guns and no funnels, and 
phenomenal light draught of water, because so very long 
and built so flimsy that she won't last 10 years, but that's 
long enough for the War I 

I have just found copy of a letter I sent Mr. Winston 
Churchill dated two months later, when those two very 
eminent men, having cogitated over the matter, very 
kindly informed me that the Visionary was justified. 
I omit the details they kindly gave me, as I don't wish to 
deprive them of any trade advantage in the furtherance 
of their great commercial intentions with regard to the 
oil engine, for it is just now the commercial aspect of the 
internal combustion engine which enthrals us. A ship 
now exists that has a dead weight capacity of 9,500 tons 
with a speed of eleven knots (which is quite fast enough 
for aU caigo-carryii^ purposes) and she bums only a 
little over ten tons of oil an hour. Having worited out 
the matter, I conclude she would save roughly a thousand 

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pounds in fuel alone over a simUar sized steamship in a 
voyage of about 3,000 miles (say crossing the Atlantic) ; 
and, of course, as compared with coal, she could carry 
much additional cargo, probably about 600 tons more. 
Then the getting rid of boilers and coal bunkers gives 
another immense additional space to the oil engine 
ship for cargo, as the oil fuel would be carried in 
the double-bottom. A Swiss firm has put on board 
an ocean-going motor-driven ship a Diesel engine 
which develops 2,500 indicated Horse Power in one 
cylinder, so that a quadruple-screw motor ship could 
have 80,000 Horse Power with sixteen of these cylinders 
cranked on each shaft. I don't see why one shouldn't 
have a sextuple - screw motor ship with a hundred 
thousand Horse Power. So it is ludicrous to say that 
the internal combustion engine is not suited to big ships. 
For some reason I cannot discover, " Tramp " owners 
are hostile to the internal combustion engine. I hope 
they will not discover their error too late. I sent 
two marvelloiis pictures of a Motor Battleship to Mr. 
Winston Churchill on November 17th, 1912, saying to 
him :— 

" These pictures will make your mouth water I " 
However, this type of ship is obsolete for war before 
she has been begun, as we have got to turn her into a 
submersible — not that there is any difficulty in that — it 
has already been described that in Augtist, 1916, a 
submersible vessel with a 12-inch gun was proposed and 
after ractreme hesitation and long delays in construction 
was built, but she was completed too late to take part in 

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the war. She mig^t have sunk a goodly number of the 
Gennan Fleet at the Battle of Jutland. But our motto in 
the 1^ was " Too Late." * 

The whole pith and marrow of the Internal Combustion 
Engine lies in the science of metallurgy. We are 
lameaitably behind every foreign nation, without excep- 
tion, in our application of the Internal Combustion Ei^ine 
to commercial purposes, because Its reliability depends 
on Metallurgy, in which science we are wanting, and we 
are also wanting in scientific research on the scale of 13 
inches to a foot. We have no scale at all 1 
We are goitig to be left behind ! 
The Board of Invention and Research, of which I was 
President, after much persistence obtained the loan of a 
small Laboratory at South Kensington, greatly aided by 
Professor Dalby, F.R.S., for research purposes as regards 
the Internal Combustion Engine ; but its capabilities 
were quite inadequate. Then the President of the Council 
(Earl Curzon) was to undertake the whole question of 
Research on a great and worthy scale, and I got a. most 
kind letter from him. It ended with the letter 1 

In this connection I have had wonderful support from 
Sir Marcus Samuel, who staked his all on Oil and 
the Oil Engine. Where should we have been in this 
War but for this Prime Mover ? I've no doubt he is 
an oil millionaire now, but that's not the point. Oil is 
one of the things that won us the War. And when he 
was Lord Mayor of London he was about the only 

I Only this morning (November 5th, 1919). I h&ve uruiged to deal 
with ^e drawings of a proposed Snomaisible Battleship carrying many 
Big Guns, and aieaiXy a practicable production. 


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man who publicly supported me wh^n it was extremely 
unfashionable to do so. 

Oil is the very soul of future Sea Fighting. Hence 
my interest in it^ and though not intoiding to work 
again, yet my consuming passion for oil and the oil 
engine made me accept the Chairmanship of a Royal 
Commission on Oil and the Oil Engine when Mr. 
Churchill and Mr. Asquith found me at Naples in May, 

I have come to the conclusion that about the best 
thing I ever did was the following otuberant outburst 
over Oil and the Oil Engine. I observe it was printed 
in November 1912, written " currente calamo," and 
now on reading it over I would not alter a word. I am 
only aghast at the astounding stupidity of the British 
Shipbuilder and the British Engineer in being behind 
every country in the development of motor ships. 

Oil and the Oil Engine (1912). 

I. — ^With two similar Dreadnoughts oil gives 3 knots 
more speed — that is if ships are designed to 
bum oil only instead of oil and coal— ^im^ 
speed is everything. 
11. — ^The use of oil fuel increases the strength of the 
BritUh Navy 33 per cent., because it can re- 
fuel at sea ott the enemy's Harbours. Coal 
necessitates about one-third of the Fleet being 
absent re-fuelling at a base (in case of war 
with Germany) some three or four hundred 
miles off! — i.e., some six or eight hundred 



miles unnecessary expenditure of fuel and 
wear and tear of machinery and men. 
III. — Oil for steam-raising reduces the present engine 
and boiler room personnel some 25 per cent., 
and for Internal Combustion Engines would 
perhaps reduce the personnel over 60 per cent. 
This powerfully anects both economy and 

IV. — Oil tankers are in profusion on every sea and as 
England commands the Ocean (she must com- 
mand the Ocean to Uve ! !) she has peripatetic 
re-fuelling stations on every sea and every 
oil tanker's position known every day to a 
yard I Before very long there will be a million 
tons of oil on the various oceans in hundreds 
of oil tankers. The bulk of these would be 
at our disposal in time of war. Few or none 
could reach Germany. 
V. — ^The Internal Combustion Engine with one ton 
of oil does what it takes four tons of coal to 
do 1 ^ And having no funnels or smoke is an 
ijtdescribabie fighting asset I (Always a chance 
of smoke in an oil steam-raising vessel where 
of course the fimnels which (usclose a ship 
such an immense distance off are obligatory. 
Each enemy's ship spells her name to you by 
her funnels as they appear on the horizon, 
while you are unseen !) 

VI. — ^The armament of the Internal Combustion Ship 
is not hampered by fimnels, so can give all- 
round fire, an inestimable advantage t>ecause 
the armament can all be placed in the central 
portion of the Hull with all-round 6re, and 
giving the ship better seaworthy qualities by 
not mtving great weights in the extremities, 

1 KoTS.— For staam raising 3 tons of oil an only cqnivalent to 
4 tons of coal. 

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as obligatory where you have funnels and 
VII. — But please imagine the blow to British prestige 
if a Gennan warship with Internal Combustion 
Propulsion is at sea before us and capable of 
going round the World without re-fuelling ! 
What an Alabama ! ! ! What an upset to 
the tremblers on the brink who are hesitatii^ 
to make the plunge for Motor Battleships 1 

According to a reliable foreign correspondent, 
the keel of a big Oil-Eneine Warship for the 
German Navy is to be Laid shortly. Krupp 
has a design for a single cylinder of 4,000 H.P. I 
He has had a six-cylinder engine of 2,000 Hi*., 
each cylinder successfully running for over a 
VIII. — Anyhow, it must be admitted that the buminff 
of oil to raise steam is a roimdabout way <» 
getting power I The motor car and the 
aeroplane take little drops of oil and explode 
them in cylinders and get all the power required 
without being bothered with furnaces or boilers 
or steam engines, so we say to the marine 
engineer, " Go and do thou likewise I " 

The sailor's life on the 70,000 H.P. coal using 
Lion is worse than in any ship in the service 
owing to the constant coatings. 

It's an economic waste of good material to keep 
men grilling in a baking fire hole at un- 
necessary labour and use 300 men when a dozen 
or so would suffice ! 

Certainlv oil at present is not a cheap fuel I but 
it is cheap when the advantages are taken into 
consideration. In an Internal Combustion 
Engine, according to fi^es given by Lord 
Cowdray, his Mexican oil would work out in 
England, when freights are normal, as equiva- 



lent to coal at twelve to fifteen shillings a 

Oil does not deteriorate by keeping. Coal does. 
You can store millions of tons of oil without 
fear of waste or loss of power, and England has 
got to store those millions of tons, though this 
reserve may be gradually built up. The 
initial cost would be substantial but the in- 
vestment is ^t-edged I We must and can 
face it. Si vu pacem para heUum ! 

You can re-fuel a ship with oil in minutes as 
compared with hours with coal t 

At any moment during re-fuelling the oil-engine 
ship can fight — ^the coal-driven ship can t — 
she is disorganised — the whole crew are black 
as niggers and worn out with intense physical 
exertion I In the oil-driven ship one man 

turns a tap I 

\lfoUy to 

It's criminal folly to aUoio another pound of coal 
on board a fighting ship I — or even in a cargo- 
ship either 1 — Krupp has a design for a cargo- 
ship with Internal Combustion En^es to go 
40,000 (forty thousand] miles without re- 
fuelling ! It's vital for the British Fleet and 
vital for no other Fleet, to have the oil engine. 
That's the strange thii^ I And if only the 
Germans knew, uiey'd e^oot their Dr. Diesel 
like a dog I 

Sir Charles Farsons and others prefer small units. 
It is realised in regard to the multiplication of 
small imits (as the Lilliputians tied up Gulliver) 
that though there is no important reason why 
cylinders shall not be multiplied on the same 
shaft yet the space required will be very large 
— ^the engines thus spreading themselves in the 
fore and aft direction — but here comes in the 
ingenuity of the Naval Constructor and the 

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Marine Engineer in arranging a complete 
fresh adaptation of the hull space and forthwith 
immense Hghting advantages will accrue I Far 
from being an insuperaole objection it's a 
blessing in disguise, tor with a multiplicity of 
internal combustion engines there undoubtedly 
follows increased safety from serious or total 
breakdown, provided that suitable means are 
provided for disconnecting any damaged unit 
and also for preventing in case of such failure 
any damage to the rest of the system. The 
storage of oil fuel lends itself to a remarkable 
new disposition of the whole hull space. 
Thus a battleship could carry some five or six 
thousand tons of oil in her double bottoms — 
sufficient to go round the earth without re- 
fuelling. The " Non-Pareil " (being the French 
for the " Incomparable ") will carry over 6,000 
tons of oil in ner douole bottoms, with an 
extra double bottom below those carrying the 
oil. This is equal to 24,000 tons of coalT 
This new arrangement of the hull space permits 
some dozen motor boats being carrira in a 
central armoured pit (where the funnels used 
to be). These 60-feet motor boats would 
carry 21-inch Torpedoes and have a speed of 
40 knots. Imagine these hornets being let 
loose in a sea nght I The 21-inch Torpedo 
which they carry goes 5 miles ! And the 
silhouette of an Internal Combustion Battle- 
ship is over 30 per cent, less than any living or 
projected Battleship in the target offered to 
the enemy's fire. 
IX.— Finally : 

To bej^si in the race is every thirtg ! 
Just consider our immense gams in having been 
first with the crater-tube boiler 1 First with 


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the turbine! First with the i3}-inch gun I 
Just take this last as an illustration 1 We shall 
have i6 ships armed with the I3^inch gun 
before the Germans have a single ship with 
anything big^r than the i2-inch, and the 
i3|-in(£ is as superior to the 12-inch as the 
12-inch is to a peashooter. 

And yet we hesitate to plunge with a Motor 
Battleship I Why boggle at this plunge when 
we have plunged before, every time with 
success ? 

People say Internal Combusticm Propulsion in a 
hundred thousand horse-power Dreadnomht 
is similarly impossible I "Wait and see 1 — 
The " Non-Fareil " is coming along ! 

The rapid development of the oil engine is best 
illustrated by the fact, that alughly influential 
and rich German syndicate have arranged for 
six passenger steamers for the Atlantic and 
Pacific Trade, of 22 knots speed and 36,000 
H.P. with nine of Knipp's cylinders of'^4,000 
HP. each on three shafts.^ 

There need be no fear of an oil famine because 
of the immense sure oil areas recently brought 
to notice in Canada, Persia, Mesopotamia 
and elsewhere. The British oil area in Trinidad 
alone will be able to more than supply all the 
requirements of the British Navy. Assuming 
the present coal requirements of the Navy at 
i^ miUion tons annually, then less than half a 
nullion tons of oil would suffice when the 
whole British Navy is oil engined, and, as 
recently remarked by the greatest oil magnate, 
this amount would be a bagatelle compared 
with the total output of oil, which he expects 
before many years to reach an output of a 

> Tbe War stopped this.— F. 1919. 

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hundred million tons a year in consequence of 
the great demand for developing its output 
and the discovery of new oil areas and the 
working of shale deposits. 

We turned coal-burning Battleships that were building 
in November, 1914, into oilers, with great increase of 
efficiency and speed. 

I have chanced upon a Memorandiun on " Oil and 
its Fighting Attributes," which I drew up on March 3rd, 
1913, for the First Lord of the Admiralty. It shows 
what a Great Personality can effect. I was told by an 
enemy of Mr. Deterding (of whom I am speaking) that 
when he came in as Manager of the Great Shell Oil 
Combine, the Concern could have been bought for 
^40,000. When I wrote my Memorandum, it was 
valued by a hostile Oil Magnate (who told me this him- 
self) at forty milUons sterling. Whether it is Oil, or 
Peace, or War, it's the Man, and not the System that 
Wins. And Mr. Deterding is the man who shifted the 
centre of gravity of oil (together with an immense assem- 
blage of clerks and chemists and all the paraphernalia of 
a huge financial web) from abroad to this country. 

" The ideal accumulator which everybody has been 
after for the last 50 years, is oil. loere will never 
be found another accumulator or source of power of 
such small volume as oil. 

** Just fency I Get a gallon of oil and a man can go 
to Brighton and back again, carryii^ the weight of ms 
biCTcle and himself by means of it. . . . 

It's a shame that anybody is allowed to put oil 



under a boiler — ^for this reason, that \rtien oil is 
used in an oil engine it realises about five times greater 
effect. . . . 

" The moment the price of oil is £5 a ton it will not 
be used anywhere unaer a boiler for steam raising, and 
the whole world's supply will be available for the Navy 
and the Diesel Engine. . . . 

" I am going to raise every penny I can get and build 
storage, and even when I have built five million tons of 
storage I am still going on building it and filling it, even 
if it is only for the pleasure of lookmg at it. It is always 
so much condensed labour stored for the future. . . . 

*' Oil fuel when stored, does not deteriorate as 
coal does. The stocks would therefore constitute a 
national asset, the intrinsic value of which would not 
diminish." . . . (Mr. Deterding before the Royal Com* 
mission on Oil and Oil Engines.) 

My Memorandum was as follows : — 

Mr. Deterdii^ in his evidence before the Royal 
Commission, confesses that he possesses in Roumania, 
in Russia, in California, in the Dutch Indies, in 
Trinidad, and shortly in Mexico, the controlling 
interest in oil. The An^lo-Persian Company also say 
he is getting Mesopotamia and squeezing Persia \ducn 
are practicaUy untouched areas of immense size reeking 
with oil. Without doubt Mr. Deterding is Napoleonic 
in his audaci^^ and Cromwellian in his thoroughness. 
Sir Thomas Browning in his evidence says tut the 
Royal Dutch-Shell Combination is more powerful and 
aggressive than ever was the great Standard Oil Trust 

Let us therefore listen with deep attention to the 
words of a man who has the sole executive control of 
the most powerful organisation on earth for the pro- 
duction of a source of power which almost doubles the 
power of our Navy whilst our potential enemies remain 

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nonnal in the strength of their fleets, li^t does he 
advise f 

He says : " Oil is the most extraordinary article in 
the commercial world and the only thing tHat hampers 
its sale is its production. There is no other article 
in the world where you can get the consumption as loi^ 
as you make the production. In the case of oil make 
the production first as the consumption will come. 
There is no need to look after the consumption, and 
as a seller you need not make forward contracts as 
the oil sells itself." Only what you want is an enor- 
mously long purse to be able to snap your fingers at 
everybody and if people do not want to buy it to-day 
to be able to say to them : " All right ; I will spend a 
million sterling in making reservoirs and then in the 
future you will have to pay so much more." *' The 
great point for the Navy is to get oil from someone 
who can draw supplies from many spots, because no 
one spot can be absolutely relied on. There is not 
anybody who can be certain of his supply ; oil fields in 
my own experience which at the time yielded 18,000 
barrels a day within five days went down to 3,000 barrels 
without the slightest warning. 

The British Err^e " has the long purse " ; build 
reservoirs and store oil. Ke^ on building reservoirs and 
buy oil at favourable rates tohen they offer. 

November zist, 1917. 
The report below of the Secretary of the United States 
Navy is interesting. I have just been looking up the 
record in 1886, when high officials said I was an " Oil 
Maniac." I was at that time at the Admiralty as Director 
of Naval Ordnance, and was sent &om that appointment 
to be Admiral Superintendent of Portsmouth Dod^ard, 

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prior to beii^ appointed Controller of the Navy, where I 
remained sis years. At Portsmouth Dockyard, while I 
was Admiral Superintendent, we paved the way for rapid 
shipbuilding in the completion of the Battleship " Royal 
Sovereign " in two years. Afterwards, with the same 
superintendence but additional v^i;our, we completed the 
" Dreadnought " in one year and one day ready for 
Battle I 

Oil Burnino Battlbsbips. 

Mr. Daniels, Secretary of the Navy, issues a report 
urgii^ that Congress should authorise the construction 
of three Battleships, one Battle Cruiser, and nine Fleet 
Submarines. He favours oil-burning units, and says 
that the splendid work which has been accomplished by 
these vessels would not have been done by coal-burning 
ships. The use of ar^ other power but oil is not nam in 

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Perhaps the most convincing spcecli I ever read was 
made impromptu by Admiral Sir Reginald Bacon at a 
meeting of the Institution of Naval Architects on 
March i2th, 1913. 

First of all Admiral Bacon disposed of the fallacy 
brought forward by one of the speakers, as to which is more 
effective in disabling the enemy, to destroy the structure 
of the ship or destroy the guns — the fact being that both 
are bound up together — if you utterly destroy the hull of 
the ship you thereby practically destroy the gun-fire. 
(This is one of those things so obvious that one greatly 
wonders how these clever experts lose themselves.) 

Then Admiral Bacon in a most lovely parable disposed 
of the " Bow and Arrow Party," who want a lot of small 
guns instead of, as in the Dreadnought, but one type of 
gun and that the heaviest gan that can be made. This 
is Admiral Bacon : — 

" I should like to draw your attention to some advice 
that was given many years aM by an old Post Captain 
to a Midshipman. He said, 'Boy, if ever you are dming 
and after dinner, over the wine, some subject like politics 
is discussed when men's passions are aroused, if a man 

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throws a glass of wine in your £ace, do not throw a glass 
of wine in his : Throw tfu decanter stopper ! ' And that 
is what we advocates of the Heavy Gun as mounted in 
the Dreadnought propose to do — not to slop the stx- 
inch shot over the shirt-front of a battleship, but to go 
for her with the heaviest guns we can ^ ; and the 
heavier the explosive charge you can get in your shell 
and the bigger explosion you can wreak on the structure 
near the turrets and the conning tower and over the 
armoured deck the more likely you are to disable that 
ship. We object most strongly to the fire of the big 
guns being interfered with by the use of smaller guns 
at the same time with all the smoke and mess that are 
engendered by them. The attention of the Observing 
Officers is distracted ; their sight is to a great extent 
obliterated, and even the theoretical result of the small 
^ns is not worth the candle. . . . The ordinary six- 
mch gun in a battleship is, as regards torpedo-boat 
attack, of just as much use as a stick is to an old gentleman 
who is being snow-balled : it keeps his enemy at a 
respectful distance but still within the vulnerable range 
of the torpedo. In these days the locomotive torpedo 
can be fired at ranges at which it is absolutely impossible 
even to hope or Uiink of hitting the Destroyer which 
fires the torpedoes at you. You may try to do it, but 
it is quite useless. Very well, then ; the six-inch gun 
does keep the Destroyer at a longer range than would 
be the case if the six-inch gim were not there, that's 
all. . . . Then the problem of speed has been touched 
upon. I quite see from one pomt of view that to lose 
two guns for an extra five-knot speed seems a great loss ; 
but there is one question which I should like to ask, 
and that is whether you would send out to sea a whole 
fleet, the whole strength of the nation, with no ungle 
ship of sufficient superior speed to pick up a particimr 
ship of the enemy r That is the point to nvet your 
attention upon. We must always in our Navy nave 

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ships of greatly superior speed to any one particular 
ship in the enemy's fleet, otnerwise over the face of the 
sea you will have ships of the enemy roaming about 
that we cannot overham and that nothing can touch." 

The above words were spoken by Admiral Bacon two 
and three-quarter years before Admiral von Spee and 
his fast Squadron were caught up and destroyed by 
the British fast Battle Cruisers, " Invincible " and 
" Inflexible." Admiral Bacon was a prophet 1 In other 
words, Admiral Bacon had Common Sense, and saw 
the Obvious. 

It's difficult for a shore-going person to realise things 
obvious to the sailor. For instance : in the case of a 
Big Gun, if twice two is four, then twice four isn*t eight, 
it's sixteen, and twice eight isn't sixteen, it's sixty-four ; 
that is to say, the bursting effect of a shell varies with 
the square. So the bigger the calibre of the gun the 
more immense is the desolating effect of the shell, and, 
incidentally, the longer the range at which you bit the 

The projectile of the 20-inch gtm that was ready to 
be made for H.M.S. " Incomparable " weighed over 
two tons, and the gim itself weighed 200 tons. Such 
a projectile, associated with a Howitzer, may effect vast 
changes in both Sea and Land War, because of the 
awful and immense craters such shell explosions would 

To illustrate the frightful devastating effect of such 

huge shell I will tell a story that I heard from a great 

friend of mine, a J^anese Admiral. He was a Lieu- 


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tenant at the time of the Chmo-Japanese War. The 
Chinese vessels mounted very heavy guns. One of 
their shells burst on the side of the Japanese ship in 
which my friend was. The Captain sent him down off 
the bridge to see what had happened, as the sh^ tottered 
under the effect of this shell. When he got down on 
the gun deck, he saw, as it were, the whole side of the 
ship open to the sea, and not a vestige of any of the 
crew could he see. They had all been blown to pieces. 
The only thing he rescued was the uniform cap of his 
friend, the Lieutenant who was in charge of that division 
of guns, blown up overhead between the beams. The 
huge rope mantlets that acted as splinter nettings hung 
between the guns had utterly disappeared and were 
resolved into tooth powder I (so he described it). 

I digress here with an anecdote that comes to my mind 
and which greatly impressed me with the extraordinary 
humility of the Japanese mind. I had remonstrated 
with my Japanese friend as to Admiral Togo not having 
been suitably rewarded for his wonderful victory over 
the Russian Admiral Rozhdestvensky. He replied : 
" Sir, Admiral Togo has received the Second Class of 
the Order of the Golden Kite I " We should have made 
him a Duke straight off I Togo was made a Count 
afterwards, but not all at once — ^for fear, I suppose, of 
giving him a swelled head. He was a great man, Togo ; 
he was extremely diffident about accepting the English 
Order of Merit, and even then he wore the Order the 
wrong way out, so that the inscription " For Merit ** 
should not be seen. The Mikado asked him, after the 

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above the summit of the Matterhom, or any other moun- 
tain you like to take, and bursting on its reaching the 
ground far out of human sight, but yet with exact 
accuracy as to where it should fall, causing in its ex- 
plosion a crater somewhat tike that of Vesuvius or Motmt 
Etna, and consequently you can then easily imagine the 
German Army fleeing for its life from Pomerania to 
Berlin. The " Furioiis " (and all her breed) was not 
built for Salvoes 1 They were built for Berlin, and 
that's why they drew so Uttle water and were built so 
fragile, so as to weigh as little as possible, and so go 

It is very silly indeed to build vessels of War so strong 
as to last a hundred years. They are obsolete in leas than 
ten years. But the Navy is just one mass of Tories I 
In the old days a Sailing Line of Battleship never became 
obsolete ; the winds of Heaven remained as in the days 
of Noah. I st^gered one Old Admiral by telling him 
that it blew twice as hard now as when he was at sea ; 
he couldn't go head-to-wind in his day with sails only, 
now with the wind forty miles against you you can go 
forty miles dead against it, and therefore the wind is 
equal to eighty miles an hour. He didn't quite take it 
in. I heard one First Sea Lord say to the Second Sea 
Lord, when scandalised at seeing in a new ship a bath- 
room for the midshipmen, that he never washed when 
he went to sea and he didn't see why the midshipmen 
should now I But what most upset him was that the 
seat of the water-closet was mahogany French-polished, 
instead of good old oak holystoned every morning and 
ao9 F 

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so always nice and damp to sit on. (Another improve- 
ment is unmentionable 1) 

I must not leave this chapter without expresaii^ my 
unbounded delight in having to do business with so 
splendid a man as Major A. G. Hadcock, the Head of 
the Ordnance Department at the Elswick Works, who 
fought out single-handed all the difficulties connected 
with the inception of the eighteen-inch and the twenty- 
inch guns of the " Furious '* and " Incon^Muable.** 
I have another friend of the same calibre, who has 
consistently been in the forefront of the Battle for the 
adoption of the biggest possible gun that could be con- 
structed — Admiral Sir Sydney Eardley-Wilmot ; he was 
also the most efficient Chief of the Munitions Department 
of the Admiralty. When I was gasping with Hadcock 
over a 20-inch gun, Wilmot had a 22-inch gun I I 
really felt small (quite unusual with me I). Now I hope 
no one is going to quote this line when they review 
this book : — " Some men grow great, others only swell." 

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When I was " sore let and hindered " in the days of 
my youth as a young Lieutenant, a cordial hand was 
always held out to me by Commodore Goodenough. 
He was killed by the South Sea Islanders with a poisoned 
arrow. Being on intimate terms with him, I sent him, 
in 1868, a reasoned statement proving conclusively that 
masts and sails were damned as the motive power of 

(As a parenthesis I here insert the fact that so late as 
1896 a distinguished Admiral, on full pay and in active 
employment, put forward a solemn declaration that unless 
sixteen sailing vessels were built for the instruction of 
the Officers and men of the Navy the fighting effidency 
of the Fleet would go to the devil.) 

Commodore Goodenough was so impressed by my 
memorandum that he had a multitude of copies printed 
and circulated, with the result that diey were all burnt 
and I was damned, and I got a very good talking to by 
the First Sea Lord. I hadn't the courage of those fine 
old boys — Bishops Latimer and Ridley — and ran away 
from the stake. Besides, I wanted to get on. I felt 
an p a 

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my day had not yet come. Years after, I conunanded 
the " Infiexible," still with masts and sails. She had 
every sort of wonderful contrivance in engines, electricity, 
etc. ; but however well we did with them we were accorded 
no credit. The sails had as much effect upon her in a 
gale of wind as a fly would have on a hippopotamus in 
producing any movement. However, we shifted topsails 
in three minutes and a half and the Admiral wrote home 
to say the " Inflexible " was the best ship in the Fleet. 
Ultimately the masts and sails were taken out of 

It was not till I was Director of Naval Ordnance that 
wooden boarding pikes were done away with. I had a 
good look round, at the time, to see if there were any 
bows and arrows left. 

What my retrograde enemies perfectly detested was 
being called " the bow and arrow party." When later 
they fought against me about speed being the first 
desideratum, the only way I bowled them over was by 
designating them as " the Snail and Tortoise party." 
It was always the same lot. They wanted to put on so 
much armour to make themselves safe In battle that 
their ideal became like one of the Spithead Forts — it 
could hardly move, it had so much armour on. The 
great principle of fighting is simplicity, but the way a 
ship used to be built was that you put into her every- 
body's fad and everybody's gim, and she sank in the 
water so much through the weight of all these different 
fads that she became a tortoise 1 The greatest possible 
speed with the biggest practicable gim was, up to die 

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time of aircraft, the acme of sea fitting. Now, there 
is only one word — ** Submersible." 
But to proceed vrith another Prediction : 
The second prediction followed naturally from the 
first. With machinery being dictated to us as the motive 
power instead of sails, officers and men would have to 
become Engineers, and discipline would be better, and 
so you would not require to have Marines to shoot the 
sailors in case of mutiny. Now this does sound curious, 
but again it is so obvious. When the sails were the 
motive power, the best Petty Officers— that is to say, 
the smartest of the seamen — got their positions, not by 
good conduct, but by their temerity aloft, and the man 
who hauled out the weather-earii^r in reefing topsails 
in a gale of wind and balanced himself on his stomach 
on a topsail yard, with the ship in a mountainous sea, 
was a man you had to have in a leading position, whatever 
his conduct was. But once the sails were done away 
with and there was no going aloft, then the whole ship's 
company became what may be called " good conduct " 
men, and could be Marines, or, if you liked to call them 
BO, Sailors. One plan I had was to do away with the 
sailors ; and another plan I had was to do away with 
Marines. I plumped for the sailors, thou^ I lowd the 

In December, 1868, 1 predicted and patented a sympa- 
thetic exploder for submarine mines. In the last 
year of the war this very invention proved to be the 
most deadly of all species of submarine mines. 
Quite a different sort of prediction occurs in a letter 

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I wrote to Sir Maurice Hankey in 1910, and of i^ch he 
reminded me in the following letter : 

Letter from Sir M, Hanket, K.C.B. (Secretart to 
THE War Cabinet). 

Offices of the Wab Cabinet, 
2, Whitehall Gardens, S.W. 
May 2iUt, 1917. 

Mr Dear Lord Fisher, 

I am sending your letter along to my wife and askii^ 
her to write to you and send both a copy of your letter 
to me in 1910 about Mr. Asquith's leavii^ office in 
November, 1916,^ and also to write to you about your 
prophecy of war with Germany beeinning in I9I4> and 
Sir John Jellicoe being in command of the Grand Fleet 
when war broke out. 

I have the clearest recollection of the incident. My 
wife and I had been down to you for a week-end to 
Kilverstone. You had persuaded us not to go up by the 
early train on the Monday, and you took us to the rose- 
garaen, where there was a sundial with a charming and 
mterestine inscription. You linked one arm throu^ my 
wife's and the ouier through mine, and walked us round 
and round the paths, and it was walking thus that you 
made the extraordinary prophecy — 
" The War zoill come inigi^, andjeUicoe foill command the 
Grand Fleet.'* 

I remember that my practical mind revolted against the 
prophecy, and I pressed you for reasons. You then told 
us that the Kiel Canal, according to experts whom you 
had assembled five or six years before to examine this 

1 Thii wa> said in igio, and Ur. Asqnith did leava office a* here p 

iited, in November, 1916, six years afterwards 1 And Sir Jo 

Jellicoa took command of the Giaod Fleet forty-elKht honn bofon war 



was declared, and the war with Germany did break oat as predicted in 


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question, could oot be enlarged for the passage of the 
new German Dreadnoughts before 19141 and that 
Germany, though bent on war, woidd not risk it until 
this date. As regards Jellicoe, you explained how you 
yourself had so cast his professional career in such 
directions as to train him for the post, and, after a brief 
horoscope of his normal prospects of promotion, you 
indicated your intention of watching over his career — 
as you actually did. 

All this remains vividly in my mind, and I believe in 
that of my wife, but, as I am not going home for a few 
days, she shall ^ve you her unbiassed account. 

The calculation itself was an interesting one, but 
what strikes me now as more remarkable is the " flair " 
with which you forecasted with certainty the state of 
mind of the German Emperor and his advisers, and 
their intention to go to war the first moment they 
dared. . . . 

No more now. 

In haste. 

Yours ever, 
(Signed) M. P. A. Hamxet. 

The grounds for my prophecies are stated elsewhere. 
I won't repeat them here. They really weren't pre- 
dictions ; they were certainties. 

I remark in passing that what the sundial said was : — 
" Forsitan Ultima." 

By the way, I was called a sundial once by a vituperative 
woman whom I didn't know ; she wrote a letter abusit^ 
me as an optimist, and sent these lines : — 

" There he stands amidst the flowers, 
Counting only sunny hours, 
Heeding neither rain nor mist. 
That brazen-faced old optimist." 


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Another woman (but I knew her) in sending me some 
lovely rosea to crown the event of a then recent success, 
sent also some beautiful lines likewise of her own making. 
She regretted that I preferred a crown <A thorns to a 
crown of the thomless roses she sent me. The rose 
she alluded to is called " Zephyrine Drouhin," and, to 
me, it is astounding that it Is so unknown. It is abso- 
lutely the only absolute thomless rose ; it has absolutely 
the sweetest scent of any rose ; it is absolutely the most 
glorious coloured of all roses ; it blooms more than any 
rose ; it requires no pruning, and costs less than any rose. 
I planted these roses when I left the Admiralty in 1910. 
Somebody told the Naval Attach^ at Rome, not knowii^ 
that he knew me, that I had taken to planting roses, and 
his remark was : " They'll d — d well have to grow I ** 
He had served many years with me. 

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NoU. — ^This i>aper was submitted (or my consideration by Sir 
Julian Corbett, in the early autumn of 1914. 

FROM the shape the war has now taken, it is to be 
assumed that Gennany is trusting for success to a repeti- 
tion of the methods of Frederick the Great in the Seven 
Years* War. Not only are the conditions of the present 
war closely analogous — the main difference being that 
Great Britain and Austria have chained places — but 
durii^ the last 15 years the German Great General Staff 
have been producing an elaborate study of these cam- 

Broadly stated, Frederick's origioal plan in that war 
was to meet the hostile coalition with a sudden offensive 
gainst Saxony, precisely as the Germans b^an with 
Fiance. When that offensive failed, Frederick fell back 
on a defensive plan imder which he used his interior 
position to deliver violent attacks beyond each of his 
frontiers successively. By this means he was able for 
seven years to hold his own against odds practically 
identical with those which now con^nt Germany ; and 
in the end, though he made none of the conquests he 

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expected, he was able to secure peace on the basis of the 
status quo ante and materially to enhance his position in 

In the present war, so far as it has gone, the same 
methods promise the same result. Owing to her excellent 
communications, Germany has been able to employ 
Frederick's methods with even greater success than he 
did ; and at present there seems no certain prospect of 
the Allies being able to overcome them soon enough to 
ensure that exhaustion will not sap the vigour and 
cohesion of the coalition. 

The only new condition in fovour of the Allies is that 
the Command of the Sea is now against Germany, and 
it is possible that its mere passive pressure may avail to 
bring her to a state of hopeless exhaustion &om which 
we were able to save Frederick in the earlier war. If it 
is believed that this passive pressure can achieve the 
desired result within a reasonable time, then there is no 
reason for changing our present scheme of naval opera- 
tions. If, on the other hand, we have no sufficient 
promise of our passive attitude effecting what is required 
to turn the scale, then it may be well to consider the 
possibility of bringing our Command of the Sea to bear 
more actively. 

We have only to go back again to the Seven Years' 
War to 6nd a means of doing this, which, if feasible 
under modem conditions^ would promise success as 
surely as it did in the eighteenth century. 

Though Frederick's method succeeded, it was once 

brought within an ace of failure. From the first he knew 


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that the weak point of hia system was his northern 

He kneto that a blow in force from ike Baltic could at 
any time paralyse his poioer of striking rigkt and left, and 
it loas in dread of tins from Russia that he b^an by presting 
us so hard to provide him toitk a covering fleet in that sea. 

Owing to our world-wide preoccupations we were 
never able to provide such a fleet, and the result was that 
at the end of 1761 the Russians were able to seize the 
port of Colberg, occupy the greater part of Pomerania, 
and winter there in preparation for the decisive campaign 
in the following spring. Frederick's view of his danger 
is typified in the story that he now took to carryii^ a phial 
of poison in his pocket. Owing, however, to the sudden 
death of the Czarina in the winter the fatal campaign 
was never fought. Russia made peace and Prusua was 

So critical an episode in the early history of Prussia 
cannot be without an abidii^ influence in Berlin. 
Indeed, it is not too much to say that in a country 
where military thought tends to dominate naval plans, 
the main value of the German Fleet must be its abiUty to 
keep the command of the Baltic so far in dispuU that hostile 
itKosion across it is impossible. 

If then it is considered necessary to adt^t a more drastic 
war plan than that we are tump pursuing, and to seek to 
revive the fatal stroke of 1761, it is for consideration 
whether vie are able to break doom the situation which the 
German fleet has set u^. Are ioe, in short, in a posititm 
to occupy the Baltic in such strength as to enable an adequate 

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Russian arv^ to land in Uu spHag on the coast of Pomenptia 
within striking distance of BerUn or so as to threaten the 
German communications eastward f 

The first and most obvious difficulty attending such 
an operation is that it would require die whole of our 
battle force, and we could not at the same time occupy 
the North Sea effectively. We should, therefore, lie open 
to the menace of a coimterstroke which might at any time 
force us to withdraw from the Baltic ; and the only means 
of preventii^ this — since the western exit of the Kiel 
Canal cannot be blocked— 

zoould be to soa the North Sea xoith mines on such a scale 
that naval f^>erations in it would become impossible. 

The objections to such an expedimt, both moral and 
practical, are, of course, very great. The chief moral 
objection is offence to neutrals. But it is to be observed 
that they are already suffering severely from the open- 
sea minii^ which the Germans inaugurated, and it is 
possible that, could they be persuaded that carrying the 
system of open-sea mining to its logical conclusion would 
expedite the end of the present intolerable conditions, 
they might be induced to adopt an attitude of acquies- 
cence. The actual attitude of the northern neutral 
Powers looks at any rate as if they would be g^ to 
acquiesce in any measure which promised them freedom 
from their increasing apprehension of Germany's inten- 
tions. Sweden, at any rate, who would, after Holland, 
be the greatest sufferer, has recently been ominously 
reminded of the days when Napoleon forced her into war 
with us against her will. 


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In this connection it may also be observed that where 
one belligerent departs from the rules of civilised wax- 
fare, it is open to the other to take one of two courses. 
He may secure a moral advantage by refusing to follow 
a bad lead, or he may seek a phyncal advanuge by 
forcing the enemy's crime to its utmost consequences. 
By the half nuasurei we have adopted hitherto in r^ard to 
open-sea mines, toe are enjoying neither the one adoanU^e 
nor the other. 

On the general idea of breaking up the German war 
plan by operations in the Baltic, it may be recalled that 
it is not new to us. It was attempted — but a little too 
late — during Napoleon's Friedland-Eylau campaign. It 
was again projected in 1854, when our operations in the 
Great War after Tra&lgar, and particularly in the Fenin* 
sula, were still living memories. In that year we sent a 
Fleet into the Baltic with the idea of covering the landing 
of a French force within striking distance of Petrograd, 
which was to act in combination with the Prussian army ; 
but as Prussia held back, the idea was never carried out. 
Still, the mere presence of our Fleet — giraig colour to 
the menace — did avail to keep a very lavge proportion 
of the Russian strength away from the CriMea, and so 
materially hastened the successful conclusion of the 

On this analogy, it is for consideration whether, even 
if the suggested operation is not feasible, a menace of 
carrying it out — concerted with Russia — might not avail 
seriously to disturb German equilibrium and force her 
to desperate expedients, even to hazarding a Fleet action 

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or to alienating entirely the Scandinavian Powers by 
drastic measures of precaution. 

The ri^t of course, must be serious ; but unless we 
are fairly sure that the passive pressure of our Fleet is 
really bringing Germany to a state of exhaustion, 
risks tmist he taken to use our command of the Sea with 
greater energy ; or, so far as the actual situation promises, 
we can expect no better issiie for the present war than 
that which the continental coalition was forced to accept 
in the Seven Years' War. 

Lord Fisher to Mr. Lloyd George. 

36, Berkeley Square, 

Marek 28th, 1917. 

Dear Prime Minister, 

I hardly liked to go further with my remarks this 
morning, recognising how very valuable your time is, 
but I would have liked to have added how appalling it is 
that the Germans may now be about to deal a deadly 
blow to Russia by sending a large German Force by sea 
from Kiel to take St. Petersburg (which, as the Russian 
Prime Minister, Stolypin, told me, is the Key of Russia I 
All is concentrated Uiere I). And here we|are with our 
Fleet passive and unable to frustrate this German Sea 
attack on Russia. All this due to the ^evous faulty 
Naval strategy of not adopting the Baltic Project put 
before Mr. ^quith in association with the scheme for 
the Brirish Army advancing along the Belgian Coast, 
by which we should have re-captured Antwerp, and 
there would have been no German submarine menace 
such as now is. An Armada of 612 vessels was con- 
structed to carry out this policy, thanks to your splendid 

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approval of the cost ^en you were Chancellor of the 

I. Our Naval Strat^y has been unimaeinative. 

II. Our shipbuilding Policy has been ftitile, inasmuch 
as it has not coped -mui the Uerman Submarine Menace. 

III. Our Naval Intelligence of the enemy's doines is 
good for nothing. For it is impossible to conceive there 
would have been apathy at the Admiralty had it been 
known how the Germans were building submarines in 
such munbers — 3 a wedc, Sir John Jeflicoe told us at 
the War Cabinet. I say 5 a we^. 

Yours, etc., 

(Signed) Fisher. 

I append a couple of extracts from Memoranda made 
by me in 1902, when I was Commander-in-Chief of 
the Mediterranean Fleet. 

" Here we see 5,000 of these offensive floating mines 
laid down off Port Arthtu:, covering a wider space than 
the English Channel, and we, so far, have none, nor any 
vessel yet fitted I What a scandal I For a purpose 
unnecessary to be detailed here, it is absolutely obligatory 
for us to have these mines instantly for war against 
Germany. They are an imperative strategic necessity, 
and must be got at once." 

Automatic Dropping Minis for Ocean Use. 

" The question of the use of these mines as an adjunct 
to a Battle Fleet in a Fleet action has not been put for- 
ward so strongly as desirable as compared vrith tneir use 
for preventing mgress or egress to a port. They can be 
used with facility in the open sea in depths up to 150 
fathoms. There is no question that they could be em- 

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ployed with immense effect to protect the rear of a 
retreating Fleet. This type of mine is quite different to 
the blocKade mine. They are offensive mines. Is it 
wise, indeed is it prudent not to acquaint ourselves, by 
exhaustive trials, what the possibility of such a weapon 
may be, and how it may be counteracted ? " 

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ScAPA Flow. 

Ages before the War, but after I became First Set 
Lord on Tra&lgar Day, 1904, I was sitting locked up in 
a secluded room that I had mis-appropriated at the 
Admiralty, lodking at a chart of the North Sea, and playing 
with a pair of compasses, when these thoughts came into 
my mind I " Those d — d Germans, if dear old Tirpitz 
is only for-seeing enough, will multiply means of ' dishing ' 
a blockade by making the life of surface ships near the 
coast line a burden to them by submarines and destroyers. 
(At this time the Germans had only one submarine, and 
she a failure 1) Also, as their radius of action grows 
through the marvellous oil ei^ine, and * internal com- 
bustion * changes the face of sea war, we must have our 
British Fleet so placed at such a distance from hostile 
attack that our Force off the Enemy's Coast will cut off 
his marauders at daylight in the morning on their maraud- 
ing return." I put that safe distance for the British 
Fleet on my compasses and swept a circle, and behold it 
came to a large inland hmd-locked sheet of water, but 
there was no name to it on the chart and no soundii^ 
23S g 

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in it put on the chart. I sent for the Hydrographer, and 
pointing to the spot, I said : " Bring me the laige scale 
chart. What's its name ? " He didn't know. He would 
find out. 

He was a d— d long time away, and I rang the bell 
twice and sent him word each time that I was getting 
angry ! 

When he turned up, he said it hadn't been properly 
surveyed, and he believed it was called Scapa Flow 1 So 
up went a surveying ship about an hour afterwards, and 
discovered, though the current raged through the Pent- 
land Firth at sometimes 14 knots, yet inside this huge 
secluded basin it was comparatively a stagnant pool t 
Wasn't that another proof that we are the ten lost tribes 
of Israel ? And the Fleet went there forty-eig^t hours 
before the War, and a German in the German Fleet 
wrote to his &ther to say how it had been intended to 
torpedo the British Fleet, but it had left une^Mctedly 
sooner for this Northern " Unknown ! " Also, he said 
in his letter that Jetlicoe's appointment as Admiralissimo 
was very painful to them as they knew of his extreme 
skill in the British Naval Manoeuvres of 1913. Also, 
thirdly, he added to his Papa that it was a d — d 
nuisance we had bagged the two Turkish Dreadnoughts 
in the Tyne the very day they were ready to start, as 
they belonged to Germany I 

The mention of Jellicoe reminds me of Yamamoto 
saying to me that, just before their War with Russia, 
he had superseded a splendid Admiral loved by his Fleet, 
because Togo was " just a little better II!" 

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The superseded man was his own protdgd^ and Togo 
wasn't. No wonder these Japanese fight I 

Prince Fushishima, the Mikado's brother, told me of 
4,000 of a special company of the bluest blood in Japan, 
of whom all except four were killed in action or died of 
wounds — only nine were invalided for sickness. How- 
ever, I remarked to him we were braver than those 4,000 
Japanese, because their religion is they go to Heaven if 
they die for their coimtry, and we are not so sure I He 
agreed with me, and gave me a lovely present. 

A Pbe-War Propubct. 

On December the 3rd, 1908, when I was First Sea 
Lord of the Admiralty, I hazarded a prophecy (but, of 
course, I vnis only doing the obvious !) that should we 
be led by our anti-Democratic tendencies in High Places, 
and by Secret Treaties and by Compromising Attendances 
of Great Military Officers at the French Manceuvres at 
Nancy, into a sort of tacit pledge to France to land a 
British Army in France in a war against Germany, then 
would come the biggest blow to Eng^d she would ever 
have experienced — not a defeat, because we never 
succumb — but a deadly blow to our economic resources 
and by the relegation of the British Navy into a " Sub- 
udiary Service." I said in 1908 (and told King Edward 
so) that the German Emperor would, in such a case, 
order his generals " to fight neither with small nor great," 
but only with the English and wipe them out I So has it 
237 g a 

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come to pass, as regards the Emperor giving these orders 
and his having this desire 1 

The original English Expeditionary Force was but a 
drop in the Ocean as compared with the German and 
French millions of soldiers, and the value, though not 
the gallantry of its exploits, has been greatly over-rated. 
It was a very long time indeed before the British Axray 
held any considerable portion of the fighting line in 
France, and instead of being on the seashore, in touch 
with the British Fleet and with easy access to Finland, 
the British Expeditionary Force was by French directions 
and because of French susceptibilities, stationed far 
away from the sea, and sandwiched between French 
troops. We have always been giving in to the suscepti- 
bilities of others and having none of our own I The 
whole war illustrates this statement. The Naval situation 
in the Mediterranean perhaps exemplifies this more than 
any other instance I 

Had the French maintained the defensive in 1915, it 
is unquestionable that it would have been the Germans 
and not the French who would have suffered the bloody 
losses in the regions of Artois and the Champ^ne. 

We built up a great Army, but we wrecked our ship- 
buildijig. We ought to have equipped Russia before we 
equipped our own Armies, for, had we done so, the 
Russians would never have sustained the appalling losses 
they did in pitting pikes against rifles and machine-guns. 
This was the real reason of the Russian Catastrophe^ 
the appalling casualties and the inability of the old r^gimt 
to supply armaments on the modem scale. Had another 

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policy been pursued and the British Fleet, with its 
enormous supremacy, cleared the Baltic of the German 
Navy and landed a Russian Army on the Pomeranian 
Coast, then the War would have been won in 1915 I 
Also, as I pointed out in November, 1914, to Lord 
Kitchener, we ought to have given Bulgaria all she 
asked of us. When later we offered her these same 
terms she refused us with derisive laughter I 

There was no difficulty in all this, but we were pusil- 
lanimous and we procrastinated. 

We did not equip Russia I WE DID NOT SOW THE 
SANDS OF MINES, as I advocated in the Autumn of 
1914, and I bought eight of the fastest ships in the world 
to lay them down I This sowing of the North Sea with 
a multitude of mines would automatically have established 
a Complete Blockade 1 Again, we did not foster Agricul- 
ture, and we almost ceased building Merchant Ships, 
and robbed our building yards and machine shops of the 
most skilled artisans and mechanics in the world to become 
" cannon fodder " I But a wave of unthinking Militarism 
swept over the coimtry and submerged the Government, 
and we were in May, 191S, hard put to it to brii^ the 
American Army across the Atlantic as we were so* short 
of shipping. 

It needs not a Soldier to realise that had the British 
Expeditionary Force of 160,000 men been landed at 
Antwerp by the British Fleet in August, 1914 (instead of 
its occupying a small sector in the midst of the French 
Army in France), that the War would certairdy have 


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ended in 1915. This, in conjiinction with the seizure of 
the Baltic by &c British Fleet and the landing of a 
Russian Army on the Pomeranian Coast would have 
smashed the Germans. All this was foreshadowed in 
1908, and the German Emperor kindly gave me the 
credit as the Instigator of the Idea so deadly to Germany. 

The " Monstrous " Cruisers so Derided in 

Note. — When I came to the Admiralty as First Sea 
Lord in October, 1914 — three months after the War had 
begun — I obtained the very cordial concurrence and help 
of Mr. Churchill and Mr. Lloyd George (Chancellor of 
the Exchequer) in an unparalleled buildii^ prc^;nunme 
of 612 vessels of types necessary for a Big Cmensive 
in Northern Waters (the decisive theatre of the War), 
Coal-burning Battleships then under construction were 
re-designed to bum oil, with great increase of their 
efficiency and speed, and the last two of these eight Battle- 
ships were scrapped (the "Renown " and " Repulse "), 
and, together with three new vessels — the " Courageous," 
" Glorious," and " Furious " — ^were arranged to have 
immense speed, heavy guns and unprecedented U{^t 
draught of water, thus enabling them to fulfil the very 
work described in this letter below of absolutely disposing 
of hostile light cruisers and following them into uiallow 
waters. They were also meant for service in the Baltic. 

Ever since their production became known, Naval 
critics in both Houses of Parliament (quite ignorant 
of new Naval strategical and tactical requirements) have 
consistently crabbed these new mighty Engines of War 
as the emanations of a sick brain, " semu and autocratic I " 
Hence the value of the following letter from an eye- 
witness of high rank : 



To Lord Fisher from a Naval Officer 

December 12th, 1917. 

Dear Lord Fisher, 

In the late action in the Heii^land Bight the only 
heavy ships which could get up with the enemy were the 
" Repulse," " Courageous " and " Glorious " (the 
" Renown " and " Furious " were dsewhereV^ Tliey 
very nearly brought off an important " coup I Without 
them our light cruisers would not have had a " look in," 
or perhaps would have been '* done in 1 ** When public 
spiers desired to decry the work of the Board of which 
you were a Member in 1914 and 1915, and particularly 
that part of the work for which you were so personally 
responsible as this new type of heavy ship, no con- 
demnation was too heavy to neap on your design I 

It is a pleasure to me, therefore, to be able to let you 
know that they have fully justified your anticipation of 
their success. 

I trust you are quite well and will believe me, 
Yours sincerely. 

Lard Fisher to a Friend. 

Augiui22nd. 1917. 
My Beloved Friend, 

I am scanning the dark horizon for some faint slimmer 
of the end of the War. Not a sign of a glinuner f So far 
as the Germans are concerned, there is indisputable 
authority for stating that Germany is equal to a seven 
years* war 1 Are we r So far, alas I we have had no Nelson, 
no Napoleon, no Pitt ! The one only *' substantial 
victory of ours in the War (and, as Nelson wished, it 

' TheM are the five Battle Cniiaers built on my retnm to the 
Admiralty in 1914-1915. 


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was not a Victory — it was Annihilation I) was the de- 
struction of Admiral von Spee's Armada off the Falkland 
Islands. . . . And the above accoim)Hshed under 
the sole direction of a Septuagenarian First Sea Lord, 
who was thought mad for denuding the Grand Fleet of 
our fastest Battle Cruisers to send them 14,000 miles 
on a supposed wild goose chase. . . . And how I 
was execrated for inventing the Battle Cruisers I * Mon* 
strous Cruisers," they called them I To this day audi 
asses of this kidney calumniate them, and their stiU more 
wonderful successors, the ** Repulse," '* Renown," 
" Furious," " Glorious," and " Courageous." How 
would they have saved Finland without these Fast 
Battle Cruisers P . . . And yet, dear friend, what comes 
to the Author of the Scene ? 
The words of Montaigne 1 

" Qui de nous n'a sa ' terre promise,' 
Son jour d'extase, 
Et sa fin en exil ? " 

Yours, etc., 

(Signed) Fisher. 

Note. — Much talk of a recent mot at a great dinner- 
table, where society's hatred of Lord Fisher was freely 
canvassed, and his retirement (in May 1015) much ap- 
plauded. " I did not know,* remarked a statesman, 

that Mr. Pitt ever put Lord Nelson on the retired 

The Dreadnought Battle Crihser. 
The following imaginary dialogue I ron^osed in 1904 
to illustrate the text that " Cruisers without high speed 
and protection are absolutely useless " : — 

** The * Venus,' an Armoured Cruiser, is approaching 
her own Fleet at full speed I 

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" Admiral signals to * Venus * : ' What have you seen P * 

" ' Venus ' replies : ' Four funnels hull down.' 

" Admiral : ' Well, what was behind ? ' 

" ' Venus * replies : ' Cannot say ; she must have four 
knots more speed than I had, and would have caught 
me in three hours, so I had to close you at tuW speed.* 

" Admiral's logical reply : ' You had better pay your 
ship off and turn over to somethii^ that is some good ; 
you are simply a device for wasting 400 men I * ** 

The deduction is : 


So we got out the " Dreadnought " Battle Cruiser on 
that basis, and also to fulfil that great Nelsonic idea of 
having a Squadron of very fast ships to bring on an 
Action, or overtake and lame a retreating foe. And in 
the great war this fast " Dreadnought " Battle Cruiser 
carried off all the honours. She sank the " Bliicher " and 
others, and also Admiral von Spee at the Falkland 

But the sine qua non in these great Ships must ever be 
that they carry the Biggest Possible Gun. It was for this 
reason that the iS-in. gun was introduced in the Autumn 
of 1914^ and put on board the new Battle Cruiser 

* This iS'in. gnn was ordered by me wlthotit aoy of the nanml 
pralimiiiajy trials or any refereoce to any Gannery Emerts irtiatever. 
The credit of Its great anccess is due to Uajor Hadcocx, Head of the 
Elswick Ordnance Manufactnring Department, who also deslfned tlie 
ao-in. gun for the fast Battleship T^e wblcb was to have been built 
had I remained at the Adraiialty In Hav, igis. 

A model of this so-in. run Battle Cruiser of 33 kaota speed, was got 
out before I left the Admiralty — three days more tbey would have 
started boUdlng. 

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" Furious " ; and indeed all was completely arranged for 
2o-in. guns being placed in the succeeding proposed 
Battle Cruisers of immense speed and very %ht draft of 
water and possessing the special merit of exceeditig rapid 

Alas I those in authority went back on it I It was 
precisely the same ai^imient that made these same retro- 
grade Lot's wives go back from oil to coal. Coal, they 
said, was good enough and was so safe t Lot's wife 
thought of her toasted muffins. Notice now especially 
that if a man is five per cent, before his time he may 
possibly be accounted a Genius ! but if this same poor 
devil goes ten per cent, better, then he's voted a Crank. 
Above that percentage, he is stark staring Mad. 

(N.B. — I have gone through all these percentages t) 

The Way to Victory. 
Lord Fisher to the Prime Mimtter. 

House op Lords, 

June i2tk, 1917. 

Mt Dear Prime Minister, 

In November, 1914, Sir John French came specially 
from France to attend the War Council to consider a 
proposal put forward by the Admiralty that the British 
Army should advance along the sea shore flanked by the 
British Fleet. Had this proposal been given effect to, the 
German Submarine Menace would have been deprived 
of much of its strength, and many Enemy Air Raids on 
our coast would have been far more difficult. The con- 
siderations which made me urge this proposal at that 
time have continuously grown stronger, and to-day I feel 
it my duty to press upon you the vital necessity of a 


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joint Naval and Military operation of this kind. I do not 
feel justified in areuing the Military advantages which 
are, however* so obvious as to be patent to the whole 
world, nor the political advantage of getting in touch 
with Holland along the Scheldt, But solely from a Naval 
point of view the enterprise is one that oueht to be 
undertaken with all our power6 without further delay. 
The present occasion is peculiarly favourable, as we .can 
call upon the support of the whole American Fleet. 
Yours truly, 

(Signed) Fishbr. 

36, Bbkkelby Squash, 

July II**, 1917. 

My Deah Prime Minister, 

In putting before your urgent notice the followii^ two 
propositions, I have consmted no one, and seen no 
experts. It is the emanation of my own brain. 

Owing to two years of departmental apathy and incon- 
ceivable strat^cal as well as tactical blunders, we 
are wrongly raided in the air, and being ruined under 

I remember a very famous q>eech of yoiu^ where you 

Kinted out that we had been fourteen times " Too 
te 1 " 

This letter is to persuade you against two more " Too 
lates " : 
(i) TheAiri 
You want two ideas carried out : 

(a) A multitude of bombing aircraft made like 
Ford cars (so therefore very expeditiously 
obtained thereby). 

(b) The other type of aircraft constantly im- 
proving to get better fighting qualities. 

The Air is going to win the War owing to the sad 
and grievous other n^lects. 

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(2) The Water : 

Here we have a very simple proposition. Now 
that America has joined us, we have a simply 
overwhelming sea preponderance I 
Are you not going to do anything with this ? 
Make the German Fleet fight, and you win the war I 
How can you make the German Fleet fight ? By 
undertaking on a huge scale, with an immense Armada of 
special rapidly-built craft, an operation that threatens 
the German Fleet's existence I 

That operation, on the basis in my mind, is one abso- 
lutely sure of success, because the force emplc^ed is so 
girantic as to be negligible of fools. 

If you sweep away the German Fleet, you sweep away 
all else and end the War, as then you have the Baltic clear 
and a straight run of some 90 miles only from the Pomer- 
anian Coast to Berlin, and it is the Russian Army we want 
to enter Berlin, not the English or French. 
Yours truly, 

(Signed) Fisher. 

Lord Fisher to a Friend. 

February 2S1A, 1918. 

Mt Dear Friend, . . . 

Quite recently we lost a golden opportunity of wredt- 
ii^ the residue of the German Fleet and wrecking the 
Kiel Canal, when the main German Fleet went to Riga 
with the German army embarked in a huge fleet of 
transports and so requiring all the Destroyers and Sub- 
marines of Germany to protect it. 

Well, in reply to your question, this is what I would 
do now : 

I would carry out the poUcy enunciated in the Print 
on the Baltic Project which was submitted early in the war^ 
and again reverted to in my letter to the Prime Minister, 
dated June 2nd, 1916. Sow the North Sea with mines 

» Sm Chapter XV. 

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as thick as the leaves in Vallombrosa I That blocks 
effectually the Kiel Canal, if continued laying of these 
mines is ^ways perpetually goii^ on with damnable 
pertinacity I Then 1 guarantee to force a passage into 
the Baltic in combination with a great Military co- 
operation, but that co-operation must not be the co- 
operation of the Walcheren E^^dition 1 

" Lord Chatham with his sword drawo 
Was waiting for Sir Richard Strachaa, 
Sir Richard, longing to be at 'em I 
Was waiting for the Earl of Chatham I " 

It has got to be chiefly a Naval Job I And the Army 
will be t^ded by the Navy I The Navy will guarantee 
landing the Army on the Coast of Pomerania and else- 
where. Three feints, any of which can be turned into 
a Reality. 

Further in detail I won't go, but I can guarantee suc- 

Have I ever failed yet ? It's an egotistical question* 
but I never have ! 

What a d — d fool I should be to brag now if I wasn't 

Yours, etc., 

(Signed) Fisher. 

P.S. — I have heard some Idiots say that the Baltic 
Sea is now impregnable because of German mines in 
it. No earthly System of mines can possibly avoid 
being destroyed. We can get into the Baltic whenever 
we luce to do' so. I guarantee tt. 


(WritUn in November, 1914). 

The German policy of laying mines has resulted in 

denying our access to their harbours ; has hampered 


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our Submarines in their attempts to penetrate into 
German waters ; and we have lost the latest type of 
" Dreadnought " ('* Audacious ") and many other war 
vessels and over 70 merchant vessels of various sizes. 

As we have only laid a patch of mines off Ostend (whose 
position we have notified), the Germans have free access 
to our coasts to lay fresh mines and to carry out raids and 

We have had, to our own immense disadvantage in 
holding up our coastwise traffic, to extinguish the navi- 
gation lights on our East Coast, so as to impede German 
ships laying mines. At times we have had completely to 
stop our traffic on the East Coast because of German 
mines ; and the risk is so great that freights in some 
cases have advanced 75 per cent. — quite apart from 
shortness of tonnage. 

The Germans have laid mines off the North of Ireland, 
and may further hamper movements of shipping in the 

The German mine-laying policy has so hindered the 
movements of the British Fleet, by necessitating wide 
detours, that to deal with a raid such as the recent Hartle- 
pool affair involves enormous risks, while at the same 
time the German Fleet can navigate to our coast with the 
utmost speed and the utmost confidence. They know 
that we have laid no mines, and the position, of course, 
of their own mines is accurately charted by them — 
indeed we know this as a fact. Our Fleet, on the con- 
trary, has to confine its movements to deep water, or 
slowly to grope its way behind mine-sweeping vessels. 

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There it no t^tion but to adopt an offensive mne-laying 

It is unfortunate, however, that we have only 4,900 
mines at present available. On February ist (together 
with 1,000 mines from Russia) we shall have 9,110, and 
on March ist we shall have 11,100 mines. This number, 
however, is quite inadequate, but every effort is being 
made to get more. Also FAST Mine-Layers are being 
procured, as the present ones are very slow and their coal 
supply very small. So at present we can only go very 
slow in mine-laying *, but carefully selected positions can 
be proceeded with. 

We must certainly look forward to a big extension 
of German mine-laying in the Bristol Channel and 
English Channel and elsewhere, in view of Admiral 
Tirpitz's recent statements in regard to attacking our 

Neutral vessels now pick up Pilots at the German island 
of Sylt, and take goods unimpeded to German ports — 
ostensibly carrying cotton, but more probably copper, 
etc., and thus circumventing our economic pressure.^ 
This toould be at once stopped effectually by a tmm-laying 

Nor could any German vessels get out to sea at speed as 
at present ; they would have to go slow, preceded by 
mine-sweeping vessels, and so would be exposed to attack 
by our Submarines. 

* Tba Foreign OSca would not pannit an efficient blockade, and the 
outiueons relaase of vasael* carrying wai-helpliig carbon caused intanaa 
dissatisfaction in the fleet. No vewda aver paaaed our chain of Cmiaen 
without detention and examinatitHi. 

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A Birthday Lettor. 
Lord Fisher to a Friend. 

January 3}(A, 1918. 

My Dear Friend, 

A letter to-day on my birthcUv from an eminent 
Engineer, cheers me up by saying mat never has France 
been so vigorously governed as she is now by her present 
Prime Minister, Clemenceau, and that he is my age, 77. 

The Conduct of the War, both by Sea and Land, has 
been ^rilously effete and wanting in Imagination and 
Audacity since May 1915. 

I know these words of mine give you the stomach- 
ache, but so did Jeremiah the Jews when he kept on 
telling them in his chapter v., verse 31 : 

" The prophets prophesy falsely. 
And the priests [the unfit] bear rule by their 

And my people love to have it so. 
And what will ye do in the end thereof ? " 

(Why ! Send for Jephthah !) 

" And Jephthah said unto the elders of Gilead " 
(who came supplicating, asking him to come back as 
their captain) 

" Did ye not hate me and expel me ? 
And why are ye come unto me now when ye are 
in distress r " 

And the elders of Gilead said unto Jephthah : 

" We turn again to thee now, that thou mayest go 
with us and fight I " 

By Sea, when the German Fleet took the German 

Army to Riga, we had a wonderful sure certainty of 

destroying the German Fleet and the Kiel Canal, but 


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we let it slip because there were risks. (As if war could 
be conducted without risks I) Consideied Rashness in 
war is Pnidence, and Prudence in war is usually a syn- 
onym for imbecility 1 

Observe the Mediterranean I The whole Sea Power 
of France and Italy is coUected in the Mediterranean to 
fight the puny Austrian Fleet, but they haven't fousht 
it. Not only that, but hundreds of vessels of the Eng^h 
Navy are perforce out in the Mediterranean to aid' them ; 
and yet the German ships, " Goeben " and '* Breslau," 
known to be fast, powerful and efficient, emerge from 
the Dardanelles with impunitv and massadre two of our 
Monitors — never meant to dc out there and totallv 
unfitted for such service — and two obsolete British 
Destroyers have to put up a f^Jlt I But God intervened 
and sent the " Goeben " and " Breslau " on top of mines. 
It was thus the act of God and not the act of our Sea 
Fools that kept these two powerful German ships from 
going to the coast of Syria, where they would have 
played Hell with Allenby and our Palestine Army. 

We have pandered to our Allies from the very be- 
ginning of the War, and yet practically we find most of 
Uie money and have found four million soldiers, and a 
thousand millions sterling lent to Russia have been 
lent in vain. 

You know as well as I do that our Expeditionary 
Force should have been sent in August, iQi4f to Antwerp 
and not to France ; we should then have held the Belgian 
Coast and the Scheldt, but this was too tame— we were 
all singing : 

" Malbrook s'en va-t'en guerre I " 

The Baltic Project was scoffed at, thotvh it had the 
impregnable' sanction of Frederick the Great, and the 
project was turned down in November, 1914 ; and now 
the Germans, because of their possession of the Baltic 
as a German lake, are going to annex all the Islands they 
241 n 

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want that command Russia and Sweden, and the Rusuan 
Fleet, with its splendid " Dreadnoughts " and Destroyers 
disappear and eight British Submannes have been sunk. 
Ichabod I 

Yours truly, 

Thb German Submarinb Menace. 
lard Fither to a Friend. 

March 2nd, 1918. 

My Dear *' Mr. Faithful," 

You write anxious to have some connected statement 
in regard to the whole history of the German Submarine 

Now, the first observation thereon is the oft-repeated 
indisputable statement that no private person wlutever 
can hope to fight successfully any Public Department. 
So even if you had the most conclusive evidence of 
effete apathy such as at first characterised the dealing 
with this German Submarine Menace, yet you would 
to the World at laree be completely refuted by a rejoinder 
in Parliament of departmental facts. Nevertheless here 
is a bit of Naval History, 

In December, 1915, the Prime Minister (Mr. Asquith) 
imexpectedly came up to me in the Lobby of the House 
of Commons, and said he was anxious to consult me 
about Naval affairs, and he would take an early oppor- 
tunitv of seeing me I However, he must have been put 
off this for I never saw him. A month afterwards I 
pressed him in writing to see Sir John Jellicoe in regard 
to the paucity both of suitable apparatus and of suitable 
measures to cope with the German Submarine Menace ; 
after much opposition the Prime Minister hinuelf sent 
for Sir John Jellicoe and he appeared before the War 
CotmciU This is my Memorandum at that time, dated 
February 7th, 1916 : 




" I have just heard that, notwithstanding the oppo- 
sition to it, Sir John Jellicoe will attend the War Council 
at 11.30 a.m. next Friday. That he may have strength 
and power to overcome all ' the wiles of the Devil is 
my fervent prayer. 

That there has been signal failure since May, 1915, 
to continue the Great Push previous to that date of 
building fast Destroyers, fast Submarines, Mine 
Sweepers and small Craft generally is absolutely indis- 

" Above all, it was criminal folly and inexcusable on 
the part of die Admiralty to allow skilled workmen 
(20,000 of them) to be taken away from shipyards. 
Also it was inexcusable and weak to give up the Admiralty 
command of steel and other shipbuilding materials. 

" Kitchener instantly cancelled the order to take men 
^m the shipyards when it was attempted by his sub- 
ordinates while I was First Sea Lord. He saw the folly 
of it! 

" Again, deferring the shipbuilding that was in pro- 
eress was btuous. I saw myself two fast Momtors 
(each of them a thousand tons advanced) from which 
all the workmen had been cdled off. A few months 
afterwards there was feverish and wasteful haste to com- 
plete them. So was it with the five ^t bi^ Battle 
Cruisers of very light draught of water. All similarly 

" Well I Jellicoe, a ' No Talker,' at the War Council 
was opposed to a mass of ' All Talkers,* so he did not 
make a good fight ; but when he got back to the Grand 
Fleet at Scapa Flow he remembered himself and wrote 
a most excellent Memorandum, which put hinuelf 

" However, a wordy war is no use ; nothing but a 
cataclysm will stop our ' Fadlia descensus Avemi.' " 
143 Ra 

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We must by some political miracle swallow up Korah, 
Datban and Abiram and have a fresh lot. In Parliament 
we have nothing but the st^estio falsi and the st^pressio 
veri I A little bit of truth skilmlly disguised : 

" A truth that's told with bad intent. 
Beats any lie you can invent." 

In reply to your question with reference to Mr. Bonar 
Law's corrected statement in Hansard, the Printer's date 
at the bottom of the Submarine Paper ,^ sent to the Prime 
Minister and First Lord of the Admiralty is January, 
1914, seven months before the War. 

Yours always, 


Lo'd Fisher to Sir Maurice Hankey, K.C.B., Secretary 
to the War Cabinet. 

19, St. James's Squarb. 
My Dear Hanket, 

In reply to your inquiry, my five points of peace 
(as regards Sea war only) are : 

(i)The German High Sea Fleet to be delivered up 

(2) Ditto, every German Submarine. 
(31 Ditto, Heligoland. 

(41 Ditto, the two flankingislands of Sylt and Borkum. 
(5) No spot of German Territory in the wide world 

to be permitted 1 It would infallibly be a 

Submarme Base. 


(Signed) Fisher, 

October 2itl, Z918. 

(Trafal^ Day). 
Sm Chaptar XI. 

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Why we were not as relentless in carrying out our 
Peace requirements at Sea .as on Land is positively 

The German Fleet was not turned over and was after- 
wards sunk at pleasure by the German crews. I don't 
feel at all sure that every German submarine, complete 
and incomplete, was handed over. Every oil engine 
ought to have been cleared out of Germany. Through 
some extraordinary chain of reasoning, absolutely in- 
comprehensible, the three Islands of Heligoland, Sylt 
and Borkum were not claimed and occupied. In view 
of the prodigious development of Aircraft it was impera- 
tive that these Islands should be in the possession of 

All this to me is absolutely astounding. The British 
Fleet won the War, and the British Fleet didn't get a 
single thing it ought to have, excepting the everlasting 
stigma amongst our Allies, of being fools, in allowing 
the German Fleet to be sunk under our noses, because 
we mistook the Germans for gentlemen. 

The Miracle of the Peace 
(that took place at the nth hour of the nth di^ of the 
nth Month/) only equalled by the Destruction of 
Sennacherib's Army, on the night described in the 25th 
verse of the 19th chapter of Second Book of Kings I 
The heading of the chapter is " An Angel tlayeth the 

" That night the Ansel of the Lord went forth . . . 
in the mommg beholathey were all dead corpses I " 

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A Cabinet Minister, in an article (after the Annistice) 
in a newspaper, stated that the Allies vnxt at their 
last gasp when the Armistice occurred as it did as a 
Miracle I for Marshal Foch had been foiled on the 
strategic flank by the inability of the American Army 
to advance and the unavoidable consequences of want <tf 
e^erience in a new Army (tmmetue but truxperieneed — 
they were slaughtered in hecatombs and died Hhe JHet I ) 
and so the American advance on the Verdun flank 
was held up, and Haig therefore had to batter away 
instead (and well he did it I). And though the British 
Army entered Mons, yet the German Army was efficient, 
was undemoralised, and had immense lines of resistance 
in its rear before reaching the Rhine I There was no 
Waterloo, no Sedan, no Trafalgar (though there could 
have been one on October zist, 1918, for the German 
Naval Mutiny was known I Sir E. Geddes said so in 
a Mansion House Speech on November 9th, 1918). 
There was no Napoleon — no Nelson I but " The Angd 
of the Lord went forth. . . ." 

Lord Fisher to a Friend. 

March iytk, 1918. 

Mr Dear Blank, 

It has been a most disastrous war for one sinmle 
reason — that our Navy, with a sea supremacy quite 
unexampled in the history of the world (we are five 
times stronger than the enemy) has been related into 
being a " Subsidiary Service 1 ". . . 

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What crashes we have had '■> 

Tiroite— Sunk. 
Jottre— Stranded. 
Kitchener— Drowned. 
Lord French — ] 

Lord Jellicoe — [Made Viscounts. 

Lord Devonport — J 
Fisher — Marooned. 

Sir W. Robertson— The " Eastern Ctnmnand " i 

Bethmann-HoUw^— lrr«™*j««^ 
Asquith- jTorpedoed. 

Heaven bless you I I am here walking lo miles a day I 
and eating my heart out 1 

And a host of minor prophets promoted. (We don't 
shoot now ] we promote I) 

Yours, etc., 

(Signed) Fisher. 

To Lord Fisher from an Admirer. 

21st November, 191S. 

Dear Lord Fisher, 

We are just back after taking part in the most 
wonderful episode of the war, and my heart is very fiill, 
and I feel tl^t the extraordinary surrender of the Flower 
of the German Fleet is so much due to your marvellous 
work and insight — ^in giving England the Fleet she has 
— that I must write you I 

I suppose the world will never a^ain see such a sight 
— a line of 14 heavy, modem, capital ships, with their 
guns fore and aft in securing position, in perfect order 
and keeping good station, quietly giving themselves up 
without a blow or a murmur. Surdy such a humiliating 

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and ignominious end could never have been even thou^t 
of in all history past or present. 

Had I been in a private ship I would have used every 
endeavour to get you up to see the final fulfilment of 
yoiu* life's work. As it is, 1 can't think it was very gracious 
of the authorities not to luive ensured your presence. 
But history will give you your due. 

Forgive this effusion, and please don't bother to 
answer it. But / realise that to-day's victory was yours, 
and it is iniquitous that you were not here to see it. 
Your affectionate and devoted admirer. 

To Lord Fisher from Admiral Morul^, 


Jvfy 9**, 1918. 
Dear old Friend, 

Just a tine. One of our " Article writii^ " Admirals 
sent me one of them on the progress of the war I Your 
name was not mentioned, nor your services alluded to I 
I returned it, saying it was the play without Hunlet. 
You might be wrong, or despised, but you could not be 
iffiored. With our Navy revolutionised, Osborne created, 
obsolete cruisers scrapped, naval base shifted from 
Portland to Rosyth, Dreadnoughts and Battle Cruisers 
invented, Falkland Islands victory, and so on, he might 
as well talk of Rome without Csesar. He replied and said 
you were an Enigma, and that covered it aiX I There is 
some truth in this, for such are all bom leaders of men, 
from our Master, the greatest Enigma of all (who made 
thee thyself, who gave thee power to do these thin^), 
down to all who can see what is going on on the other side 
of the hill. . . . 

Yours ever, 

(Signed) J. Morssbt. 


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Last night, in SnishJng off the enuninttion of several 
boxes of old papers, I came across a foi^otten letter 
written a fortnight after the Battle of Trafalgar from the 
" Dreadnought " (which ship participated in the Battle). 
On mentioning it I was told there was a " Dreadnought ** 
in the Navy at the time of Henry VIII. I think one of 
the Docks at Portsmouth dates from that time, and the 
" Dreadnought " may have been docked in it. I love 
the delicious little touch at the end of this letter where 
everyone seals their letters with black wax in memory of 
Nelson, and the prayer and poetry are lovely. And 
where his acquaintance in CoIIingwood's Ship " had 
been shortened by the Hand of Death," and 

" Roll softly ye Waves, 
Blow gently ye Win^ 

OVr the bosom of the deep where the bodies of the 
Heroes rest, until the Great Day, when all that are in 
their grave shall hear the Voice of the Son of God, 
when thou O Sea I shall give up thy dead to Life Im- 
mortal, and thou O Britain be grateful to thy defenders I 
that the Widows and Orphans of thjr deceased Warriors 
be precious in thy sight— Soothe their sorrows, alleviate 

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their distresses and provide for their wants by anticipating 
their wishes." 

(The Straits of Gibraltar the writer speUs " Streights*') 
He adds " Our splendid Success has been dearly bought. 
Our gallant Chief is dead. In the arms of Victory fell 
the greatest Hero that ever any age or Nation ever 

Vigitzed by Google 


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By W. T. Stead 

" He being dead yet speaketh."— H«6r«t(u xl. 4. 

(The fdlowing account of Lord Fisher's Naval Refonns is extracted 
from The Review 0/ Reviews for February, 1910.] 

I BRIEFLY summarise Lord Fisher's four great refonns : 

1. The introduction of the nucleus crew system. 

2. The redistribution of the fleets in accordance with 
modem requirements. 

3. The elimination of ineffident fighting vessels from 
the Active List of the Navy. 

4. The introduction of the all-big-gun type of battle- 
ship and battleship-cruiser. 

To these four cardinal achievements must be added 
the system of common entry and training for all executive 
officers and the institution and development of the Naval 
War Collie and the Naval War Staff. 

By the nucleus crew s^tem all our available ships of 
war are ready for instant mobilisation. From two-fifths 
to three-fifths of their complement, includii^ all the 

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expert and specialist ratings, are on board, so that they 
are familiar with the ship and her annament. The rest of 
the crew is held in constant readiness to come on board. 
Fisher once aired, in after-dinner talk, the daring idea 
that the time would come when the First Lord of the 
Admiralty would be supreme over the War Office, and 
would, as in the days of the Commonwealth, fill up 
deficiencies in ships' crews by levies from the territorial 
forces. Landsmen can serve guns as well as sailors. 

The second great revolution was necessitated by the 
alteration in the centre of international gravity occasioned 
by the growth of the German Navy. Formerly the 
Mediterranean Fleet ranked first in importance. Now 
the Home Fleet concentmtes in its four divisions all ^ 
best fighting ships we possess. It is hardly too much to 
say, as M. Hanotaux publicly declared, that Admiral 
Fisher had, by concentration and redistribution, magnified 
our fighting naval strei^h by an amount unparalleled in 
a hundred years. That the fighting efficiency of the 
Fleet has been doubled under Fisher's regime is to 
understate the facts. To say it has been trebled would 
hardly be over the mark. And what is the most marvel- 
lous thing of all is that this enormous increase of efficiency 
was achieved not only without any increase of the 
estimates, but in spite of a reduction which amoimted to 
nearly five millions sterling — three and a half millions 
actual and one and a half millions automatic increase 

This great economy was largely achieved by the acntp~ 

ping of ships too weak to fight and too slow to run away. 


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One hundred and fifty obsolete and useless ships were 
removed from the effective list ; some were sold, others 
were broken up, while a third class were kept in store for 
contingencies. They were lame ducks, all useless in war, 
costly in peace, consuming stores, wasting the time of 
officers and men. The obsolete ships were replaced on 
foreign stations by vessels which could either fight or 
fly. . . . 

Of the introduction of the " Dreadnought " and super- 
" Dreadnoughts " I have already spoken. 

Apart from the above matters of high policy, a number 
of other reforms or advances have been made during the 
past five years which are beyond all criticism. Opinions 
may differ as to the details of some of these services, but 
there is no dispute as to their immense contribution to 
the fighting efficiency of the Navy. Some of these may 
be thus briefly enumerated : 

1. Complete reorganisation of the doclgrards. [6,000 
redundant workmen discharged.] 

2. Improved system of refits of ships, and limitation of 
number of vessels absent at one time from any fleet for 

3. Introduction of the Royal Fleet Reserve, composed 
only of ratings who have served for a period of years in 
the active service. 

4. Improvements of Royal Naval Reserve, by enforcing 
periodical training on board modem commissioned ships 
in place of obsolete hulks or shore batteries. 

5. Establishment and extension of Royal Naval Volun- 
teer Reserve. 


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6. The establishment of a service of offensive mines 
and mine-layii^ vessels. 

7. The introduction of vessels for defensive mine- 
sweeping in harbours and on the open sea. 

8. A complete organisation of the service of auxiliary 
vessels for the fleets in war. 

9. The development of submarines, and the equip- 
ment of submarine bases and all the necessary auxiliaries. 

10. The proper organisation of the Destn^er Flotillas, 
with their essential auxiliaries. 

11. The enormous development of wireless telegraphy 
afloat, the equipment of powerful shore stations round 
the coast and at the Admiralty, and the introduction of a 
special corps of operators. 

12. The experimental stage of aerial navigation entered 

13. The foundation of the Royal Naval War College 
and its development. 

14. The establishment of Signal Schools at each port. 

15. The establishment of a Navigation School. 

16. Enormous advances in the Gunnery training and 
efficiency of the Fleet. 

17. Great improvements in torpedoes and in the tor- 
pedo training. 

18. The introduction of a naval education and training 
for Engine Room Artificers. 

19. The introduction of the new ratii^ of Mechanician 
for the Stoker Class for engine-driving duties. 

20. Complete reorganisation of the arrangements for 
mobilisation, whereby every officer and man is always 


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detailed by name for his ship on mobilisation, and ^ 
mobilisation of the whole fleet can be effected in a few 

21. The introduction of a complete system of intelli- 
gence of trade movements throughout the world. 

22. The stores of the Fleet put on a modem basis both 
in the storehouses ashore and those carried in the ships 
themselves — recognisii^ the far different conditions now 
obtaining to those of sailing-ship days of long voyages, 
necessitating larger supplies being carried, and modem 
conditions of production and supply enabling stores on 
distant stations and at home being rapidly replenished. 
Some millions sterling were economised in this way with 
increased efficiency, as the Fleet was supplied with up- 
to-date articles ; the only thing that gained by the age of 
the old system was the rum. 

23. The provision of repair ships, rfiwrilUng plant, and 
attendant auxiliaries to all fleets, and the preparation of 
plans elaborated in a confidential handbook providing 
for all the auxiliary vessels required in war. 

In addition to all the above reforms great inqtrove- 
ments have been made in the conditions of service of 
officers and men, ait tending to increase contentment 
and thereby advance efficiency. Some of these are as 
follows : 

1. The introduction of two-year commissions, in place 
of three years and often four [so that men were not so 
long away from their homes and the crews of ships did 
not get stale]. 

2. Increases of pay to many grades of both officers 

357 s 

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and men — as regards Comnumders, the only increase 
since the rank was introduced. 

3. Ship's Bands provided by the Service, and a School 
of Music established, and foreign muadans abolished. 

4. The long-standing grievances of the men with 
regard to their victualling removed. Improvements in 
cooking. Bakeries fitted on board ships. 

5. The Canteen system recognised and taken under 
Admiralty control, and the old abuses abolished. 

6. The clothing system reformed, and much expense 
saved to the men. 

7. Great improvements effected in the posititm of 
Petty Officers. 

8. An educational test instituted for advancement to 
Petty Officer. 

9. Increase of pension granted to Chief Petty Officers. 

10. Allotment stoppages abolished. 

11. Allowances paid to men in lieu of victuals vAua 
on leave. 

12. Promotions from the ranks to Ccmunissioned 
Officer introduced. 

13. Warrant rank introduced for the telegraphist, 
stoker, ship's steward, writer, ship's police, and ship's 
cook classes. 

I print the foregoing from a return drawn up by an 
expert familiar with detaib of the Service. To the 
general reader they will be chiefly interesting as sug- 
gesting the immense and multifarious labours of Admiral 
Fisher. It is not surprising that he found it necessary 
to start work every morning at four o'clock. 

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Bom January 2$, 1841, at Ramboddt, Ctylon. 

Son of Captain WUUam Fisher, 78tli Highlanden, A.D.C to the 
Governor of Cejrlon, and Sojdiia, daaght«r of A. Lambe, of New Bond 
Street, and granddaughter of Alderman Boydell. His godmother 
was Lad; Wilmot Horton, irifa of the Governor of Ceylon ; and his 
godfather Sir Robert Arbnthnot. Commanding the Forces in Ceylon. 

EnUftd tlu Royal Naey. Jmu 13, 1854. 

Received a nomination for the Navy from Admiral Sir William 
Parker, the last of Nelson's Captains. Joined his first ship, the 
" Victory," at Portsmouth, en July la, 1854. The " Victory " was 
also the last ship to fly his flag as an Admiral, October ao, 1904. 

Served in Russian War, in Baltic (Medal) in " Calcutta " 84 gnns. 

Served in the China War, 1836-60, including the capture of Canton 
and Peiho Forts. (China Hedal, Canton and Taka Claspa.) Given 
command of a small vessel by Admiral Sir James Hope, Commander- 
in-Chief, the " Coromandel," of which he was acting ffli>tnin at the 
age of 19. 

Also served in * Highflyer," Captain Shadwell; "Chesapeake," 
Captain HiUes ; and " Furious," Captain Oliver Jones. Returned 
home in 1861 from the China Station. 

LifitUnant. Nootmber 4, i860. 

In passing for Lieutenant, he won the Beaufort Testimonial ; and 
was advanced to Mate on January 35, i860, and confirmed as lieutenant 
within eleven months, 


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March 38, 1863. 

Appointed to H.M.S. " Warrior," Captain the Hon. A. A. Cocbnute, 
the first seagoing irondad, for gunnery duties. Served in her for three 
and a half years . 

November 3, 1866. 

Appointed to the Staff of H.M.S. " Excellent," gunnery schoolahip, 
Portamouth, Captain Arthur W. A. Hood. 

Augtul 3, 1S69. 
Promoted to Commander, and appointed to the China flagship. 

September 19, 1872. 

On returning from Cliina in H.M.S. " Ocean," was appointed to 
" Excellent " for Torpedo Service. Started the " Vernon " as a Torpedo 
Scbootship. Visited Fiume to arrange for the purchase of the Whitehead 

October 30, 1874. 
Promoted to Captain, and re-appointed to " Excellent " for torpedo 
service and instructional duties, remaining until 1876. 

November 16, 1876. 

Appointed for special service in " Hercules," flagship of Vice-Admiral 
the Hon. Sir James Dnnnmond, Commander-in-(^ef, Mediterranean. 

March ij, 1877. 
Appointed Flag-Captain to Admiral Sir A. Cooper-Key, Commander- 
in-Chief, North American Station, in the " Betlerophon." 

Appohited Flag-Captain to Admiral Sir A. Cooper-Key, Com m aodi n g 
the Particular Service Squadron, in the " Hercules." 

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January i, 1879. 

Appc^ted in comnund of tbe " Pallas," corvette, on Hoditeiraneui 
Station, ratarning home in July. President ol a Committee for the 
revision of the " Gunnery Manual of the Fleet." 

Sepiembtr 33, 1879. 

Appcanted Fla^-Captoin to Vice-Admiral Sir Leopold U'Clintock, 
Commander-in-Chief. North American Station, in the " Northampton." 

Appointed to command the " Inflexilde," the largest ship in the 

July It, 1883. 

Took part in the bombaidment of Alexandria. Afterwards landed 

with the Naval Brigade at Alexandria. Arranged for the first 

" armoured train," and commanded it in various sidrmlabes with the 


August 14, 1882. 

Awarded the CB. for service at Alexandria ; also Egjrptian Hedal, 
with Alexandria Clasp ; Khedive's Bronze Star ; Order of Osmanieh, 
3rd Class ; etc. 

November 9, 1882. 
Invalided home throagh illness contracted on active service. 

April 6, 1883. 
Appointed in command of " Excellent," gunnery schoobhip. 

Collaborated with Mr. W. T. Stead in the production of " The Truth 
About the Navy," resulting in increased Navy Estimates and the 
opening of a new era in the provision of an adequate Fleet. 


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Nowmbtr i, i8S6. 

Appointed Director of Naval Ordnance, occopyiag thii post 
a half years. Carried ont the transfer of the control of naval 
from the War Office to the Admiralty. 

August 3, 1890. 
Promoted to Rear<Admtral. 

May 31, 1891. 

Appointed Admiral-Superintendent of nirtsmooth Dockjrard. 
Expedited the completion of the " Royal Sovereign," first of a new type 
of battleships. Acted as host when the French Squadron under Adminl 
Gervais visited the Dockyard, 1891. 

February i, 1891. 

Appointed Third Sea Lord and Contrpllar of th e Wawy , «nd served 
in the administrations of Lord George Hamilton, Eari Spencer, and Vx- 
G. J. Coschen as First Lords ; and Admirals Sir A. Hood, Sir A. H. 
Hoskins and Sir F. W. Rictiards as Fint Sea Lords. During this period 
the firm stand of the Admiralty Board brought abont the r 
of Hr. Gladstone, March 3, 1894. 

May 26, 1894. 
Appointed K.C.B. 

May 8, 1896. 
Promoted to Vice-Admiral. 

August 24, 1897. 
Hoisted his flag in H.M.S. " Renown " as Commander-in<ChieL 
North American Station. 

Attended the &nt Ha^ae Peace Conference aa Naval Delegate. 




Jtdy 1. 1899. 
Apjiniii*«j ^^^^]^^l^lBln^^«■.^^l■^^l^^rf, Mediterranean Station, wltli bis 
Bag in tlie " TtmnnS!\^ ifiiiiMliiliig *w mra [■■rnntil Jnne snd, 1901. 
Admiral Lord BorMford, Second-in-Comnuuid, sa;B of thli period in 
his " Memoirs " : " While Vice-Admlral Sir John Fisher was 
Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean Fleet, he greatly improved - 
its fighting effidoiqjc. -Aa a rmnlt of his repmentations, the stocks of 
coal af IKIta and Gibraltar were increased, the torpedo flotillaa were 
strengthened, and the new breakwaters at Malta were b^tin. Some 
of Sir John Fisher's reforms are confidential ; bnt among his achieve- 
ments which became common Imowledge, the following are notable : 
From a ii-knot Fleet with breakdowns, he made a 15-knot Fleet without 
breakdowns ; introduced long range target practice, and institnted 
the Challenge Cnp for heavy gnn shooting ; InstitsM ..vadoas- war 
practi^es-iai-ottceca and men ; invited, with exsellant resatts,- officers 
to formulate their opinions upon cruising and battle formation ; drew 
up complete instmctions for torpedo flotinas ; e:urcised cruisers in 
towing destroyers and battleships in towing one another, thereby 
proving the utility of the device for saving coal in an emergency ; and 
generally carried into execution Fleet exercises based, not on tradition- 
bnt on the probabilities of war." 

Received from the Sultan of Turkey the ist Class of the Order of 

Promoted to Admiral. 

Jum 5, 190a. 
Returned to the Admiralty as Second Sea Lord, remaining until 
August 31, 1903, with Lo sd S dbCgne. First Lord, and Admiral Lord 
WaHet Kerr, First Sea Lord. 

/<MU 36, 1902. 
Appointed G.C.B. in the Coronation Honours List 


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Deumber 33, 1903. 
.' Launched new scheme of naval entry and education for officers, 
with training collies at Osbcmie'and Boitmouth. 

May a, 1903. 
Made bis first public speech at the Royal Academy Banquet. 

Aitguit 31, 1903. 

Appointed <*""■■«■ °"^*--;^-^*-u< -* Prrtumc]!*''. '" «"<" to supervise 

personally the inauguraUon of his new education scheme at Ctabome 

College. Also energetically promoted the formation and dtvelt^ment 

of tbie first British submarine flotilla. 

Navtmber 7, 190.1. 
Appointed member of Committee with Lord Esher and Colonel Sir 
George Clarke [Lord Sydenham) to reorganise the War Office on the 
linee of the .\dmiralty Board. 

October 21, 1904. 

Appointed First Sea Lord In Lord Selbprtu's admiu^tration, and 
held this office for five years and three months, the period of hit greatest 
activity and his preparation for a war with Germany. Some of the 
more notable of his many reforms are dealt with in his " Hemoiiea." 

Also appointed, October 21, 1904, First and Principal Naval Aide-de- 
Camp to King Edward VII. 

December 6. 1904. 

Admiralty Memorandum on the Pintphiititm wt the- Fl eet.i^od>idng 
utMteui «rew system^ for ships in roervc, and withdrawing obsolete 
craft from foreign stations. 

January, 1903. 

Committee appointed to inquire into the reorganisatjgiu of the 
dockyards. " ' 


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March 6, 1903. 

Appointment of Rear^Admiiml Parcy Soott to newly-created poet of 

Inspector of Tiugei r>nt.ttl«. By this and other means, including 

tbe service of Captain J. R. Jellicoe as Director of Naval Ordnance, 

the marksmanship of the Navy was vastly improved. 

December 4, 1905. 

Awarded the Order of Merit, and promoted by Special Order in 
Council to be an additional Admiral of the Fleet, thus giving him five 
more years on the active list In order to carry out his policy. 

FAr%ury to. 1906. 
Laun<^ oLJba- " D» e >da o«ght t" % th t fi nt e llhiggiiii a n i 1. _tiiTt[inr 
driven battleship, as recommended by the Admiralty Committee on 
Oesign^^vsidM aver"by the First Sea Lord (Sir John Fisher). 

Novimbtr, 1906. 
Establishment oi the Naval War College at Portsmouth. 

January, 1907. 

Institution of a service of Fleet AuxUiaries-^ammunition and store 
ships, distilling and hospital ships, fleet rtp^ ships, fishing tnirim as, 
mine sweepers, etc., etc., etc, etc.. 

Creation of 4 new Home neet, with tbe " Dreadnought " as flagship 
fur service in the Kbrth Sea. 

New scheme of advancement and pay of naval ranks and ratings 


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StpUmbtr, 1907. 

Establishment of a wireless telegraphy branch, and installation aracted 
on the Admiralty building. 

Jfovtmber 9. 1907. 
Speech at the Lord Mayor's Banquet, assniing his countrymen that 
they could sleep quietly in their beds, and not be disturbed by Invasion 

/nm, 190S. 
Visited Reval with King Edward and Queen Alexandra on thor 
visit to the Tsar of Russia. Awarded G.CV.O. on the conclusion of 
this cruise. 

Jmu 17, 1908. 

Created honorary LL.O. of Cambridge University. 

Entertained delegates to Imperial IVess Conference at a review of 
the Fleet at Spithead, and a display of submarines, etc. 

December 7, 1909. 

Raised to the peerage as Baron Fisher of Kilverstone, in the County 
of Norfolk, after the manor bequeathed to his only son by the late 
Ur. Josiah Vavassenr, C.B. 

January 25, 1910. 

Retired from office of First Sea Lord, and was succeeded by A 
of the Fleet Sir Artbnr'WilsoD, but remained a member of the Committes 
of Imperial Defence. Becording his retirement in the Hist Lord's 
Memorandum, dated March 4, igio, Mr. Reginald McKenna said: 
" The measures which are associated with his name and have been 
adopted by several successive Governments will prove of far-reaching 
and lasting benefit to the Naval Service and the country." 



March to. 1910. 
Took the oath and hb seat in the Honse of Lords. 

May 34, igi3. 

Visited at Naples b; Mr. Churchill (the new Pint Lord) and Hr. 
Asquitb (Prime Minister). 

July 30, 1913. 

Appointed, Chainaaii of th r.Bajnl. rnmniiwi nn on Oil Fuel and Oil 
Engines for the Navy. 

StpUmbtr 7, 1914. 
Appointed Honorary Coloael ol the Hnt Naval Brigade, Royal 
Naval Division, 

Octobtr 30, 1 91 4. 
Recalled to the Admiral^ aa First Sea Lord. 

Du*mbtr 8, 1914. 

Victory of Admiral Sir Doveton"St«rdee over Admiral Count von 
Spec, due to the prompt dispatch from En^and of two battle-cndsera 
immediately on recdpt of the news of the Coronel disaster. Thia 
was the most decisive battle of th« war, the German force being prac- 
tically annihilated. 

January 34. 1915. 
Action of Sir David Beatty off the Dogger Bank, and ■♦"Mng of the 
" Blficber " — another striking success of the battle-cruiser design. 

May 15, 1915. 
Resignation as First Sea L4^ oveTtiie Dardanelles question. 

Jufy 5. J9I5- 
Appointed Chairman of the Board of Invention and Research, 


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NoviM^er i6, 1915. 
Firat speech in House of Lords, in reference to Mr. ChuichUl'a spMch 
>n the previous day, following the latter's resignation from C*Uiiet, 

March 21, 1917. 

Second speech in House of Lords, declaring his refusal to diacuss 
Dardanelles report during the war. 

Awarded the Grand Cordon, with I^ulownia, of the Japanese Order 
of the Rising Sun. 

May 5, 191 9. 
Speech at the luncheon to Mr. Josephus Daniels, U.S. Nax'al Secretary. 

Oelaberit (Trafalgar Day) 1919- 
Publication of " Memories." 

Dtcemb$r 8 (Falkland Islands Day) 1919: 
Publicalion of " Records." 

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Action, 46 

Adtuni, John Couch, 21 

Admiralty Hoiific. Portsmouth, 

King Edward's visit to, 24, SS 
Admiralty policy : repliea to 

criticisms, 98 et atq. 
Alccsitflr, Lord, 30 
Aldnrnoa, (jonernl, 04 
Alexandria, bombardment of, 63, 

Allan, Sir William, 88 
Allenby. Lord, 241 
American advance on Verdun, 

Animated biaouite, 8 
Arabi Foaha. 30 
ArbuthDOt, ait Robnrt, 261 
Archbishop and the pack of 

cards, toe, 32 
Armourod trains, institution of, 

Ascension, the, 46 
Asquith, Rt. Hon. H. H., 6S, 

179, 194, 214. 222, 242, 247, 

Aut^natio dropping 
ooeao use, 223-224 
Ayledord. Lord, 3 

Baker, Hra., hotd Fisher'a oook, 
20 : invited to Buckingham 
Palaoe by King Edward, 

Balfour, Rt. Hon. A. J., 66, 66, 

Balliol CoII<-p(», Oxfnrd, 2 

Baltic project, the. 217 <f mo., 
236, 241 

Battle hvmn of the *, 
Republic, the, 77, 78 

Beilby, Sir George, 66 

Benbow, Sir Henry, ]ett«r of, to 
Lord Fioher, 171 

Bore^ford, Admiral Lord Ch^eo, 
on training of ofiQcors and 
men for the Navy, 167-170; 

Bethmonn-HoUwes, Hen vtm, 

Bible, the, and other reflections, 
38 et aeq. ; WycUf'a translation, 
43 i Tyndale s, ibid, ; Cover- 
dale's, 44 ; Authorised, ibid. ; 
Revised, ibid. ; Cranmer's 
' Great Bible," ibid. 

Bacon, Admiral Sir Reginald, 
128, 181 : on the big gun, 204- 

novel, 73 
Black, Dr. Hugh. 38, 89.*7T 
Boar. Mr., 128 
Bovd of Invention and Beaearoh. 

193, 269 

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Bodmin, anowtnl boma of the 
Flaben, 3 

Borden, Sir Robert, uid heredi- 
tary titiM In Canada, 72 

Borkum, 84S 

Bourke, Mr. Uauricfl, SB 

Boydell, Alderman, 1, 261 

Boys, training of, for the Navy, 

Brampton, Lord, 26, 31, SS 

Brest, blookada of, 6 

Bright, John, 6B, 70 

British submarines before and 
durii^ the war, 186 

Brodrick, Hr., 83 

Browning, Sir Thomao, 201 

Brutality in the Navy, former. 



Buonaparte, Napoleon, 
bishop Whately, on, 100 

Bumham, the first Lord, 31, 32, 

"Buying up opportunities," 61 

Byron, Lord. 4 

Clemeaoeau, M., 240 

Clive, Lord, 74 

Coastguard, service, the, ISO <t 

Cochrane, Captain the Hon. A. A.) 

CoUingwood, Admiral, 90, 02 
Commerce, the submarine and, 

Common entry into the Navy, 

Congreve, William. 92 
Cooper-Key, Admiral Sir A., Wt 
Corbett, Str Julian, 34 
Comwallis, Admiral, 6, 90 
Coronel, 261 

Coverdole, Hiles, 42, 43, 44 
Cowdray, Lord, 196 
Cranmer's Bible, 43, 44 
Cromwell, Thomas, 41, 4S, 44 
Currie, Oeaera), 74 
Curcon, Earl, 193 

Cabman's retort to the Admiral, 

the. Si 
Campbell -Bannerman, Rt. Hon. 

Sir Henry. 31, 32, SI, S3 
Canada and hereditary titles. 

Sir Robert Borden on, 78 
Cape Observatory, the, 124 
Capri, 41 
Cawdor, Lord, 98 
Cawdor memorandum, the, 107, 

Childera, Bt. Hon. Hu^. S6, 139 
China Seas, an Admiral's unique 

manner ot survning, S 
Chinese, the ingenious, 9 
Chiistmae Day joys on a man-of- 

Churchill, Bt. Hon. VfinEtaa, 86, 
179, 188, 191, 192, 194, 230, 
269, 270 

Clarice, Sir Oeorge. S6« 

Dalby, Prof., 193 

Daniels, Ur. Josephui, 79 j W> 

port on oil-bummg battlediipe, 

203, 270 
DavicA, BIr., American dsntiat 

to the Kaiser, TS 
Dawson, Sir TYevor, 1S9 
Defects and repairs, 112 at mq. 
Democracy, 69 el mo. 
Deterding, Hr., 200, 201 
Devonport, Viscount, 247 
Dieael, Dr., 197 
Dilke, Sir C, 102 
Disraeli, Ur., 20 
Diving methods of the 

Dc«ger Bank, 269 

" J%eadnought " ami 

oibte," tte. 109 
Dreadnought battle c 

Drumelog, 78 



DmmmoDi], Admiral tlis Hod. 

FriadlAiid-E}4»n f»wip-Jjp, 231 
Friflod, Lofd Tiaher's latter to 

a, 76 
Fuahiahiioft, Frinoe, SS7 

Eardl^-WUmot, Admiral Bir 

Sydner, 210 
Ediaon, Mr., 21 
Edmunds, Mr. Henry, 21, 22 
EmproM of Rusais, Dowager, 29 
" Equal c^portnmty for all," 

71 e(Mo. 
Bsber. Lord, II, 63, 173, 266 
Eaeentials of ess fluting, the, 

88 « uq. 

Falkland Islands, 66 

Fiidier Baronetcjr, lapse of, 2 

Fislwr's career. Lord, synopsis of, 

26S et atg. 
Fisher, Sir Clement, 2, 3 
Fisher, John, 2 
Fisher, Bev. John, of Bodmin, 

3 ; tour generations of, 4 
Fisber, tSr. John Arbuthnot, 6, 
Fisher, Bir Bobert, of Paoldngton, 

Fisber, Sir Robert, 4 
Fisher, William, father of hixd 

Fisher, 261 
Fisber, Vary, wife ut Lord 

Aylesford, 3 
Fisber motto, the, 2 
Fiume, 256 
" Fleet Street " conspifaoy, a, 

Foch, Marshal, 246 
Forgivenees, 49 
" Free Tank Day," a, 22 
Frederick the Great and the 

Seven Years' War, 217, 218 
EVeedom of the se 

Frenoh, Lord, 247 

Gallifet, General, 31 
Gard, Hr., 1S8 
Gardiner, Hr. A. G., 11 
Gaunt, John of, 96 
Oeddee, Sir Erie, 67, S46 
German Emperor, the, 227, 230 
German submarine menaoa, Uie. 

66, 242 
Gervais, Admiral, 264 
Ginsburg, Dr., letter from Lord 

Fisber to, 41 
GUdstone, Rt. Hon. W. E., 

final resignation of, 00 et aw., 

Goodenough, Commodore, 211 
Gould. Sir F. C, 36 
Ooschen, Rt. Hon. Q. J., 264 
Gracie, Hr., 128 
Graft<Mi, Richard, printer of the 

1639 Bible, 38 
Grant, Bir Hope, 17 
Graves, Admiral, 7 
"Great Silent Navy," the, 96, 

Hadoock. Uajor A. 0., tlO, 

Hamilton, Duke of, 6 

Hamilton, Lady, 1, 6 

Hamilton, Lwd Gewge, 64. 264 

Haokey, Sir Uaurioe P. A., 173 j 
letter to Lord Fisber, 214-216 1 
letter of Lewd FI^mt to, 244 
H., 260 


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Hwoourt, Lord, B8 

Etarcourt. Bt. Hon. Sir William, 

51, S2, 03 
Ha\rice, AdDairal, Capt. A. T. 

Jones, Captain Olivar, 15, 16, 17| 

B Hythe School of Hiuketry, 

17. IS 
KOIgoland Bight> a Naval OtBoor, 

on the battle of. 230, 24S 
Henderson, Wilfrid. 128 
Hereditary titles out of date, 73 ; 

Canada and, ibid. 
Hioka-Beach, Bt. Hon. Sir 

Michael, SI 
HiUes, C(Q>taiii. 361 
Hole, Detui, 6S 
Hood, Captain Arthur W. A., 

Hood, Sir H., 262, 264 
Hope, Sir James, U. 15, 261 
Hopkins, Sir John, 170; letter 

o), to Txwd Fisher, ibid. 
Horton, I^ady Wibnot, 4, 261 
Hosldns, Sir A. H., 204 
Hostile Bubntarines, 1S3 
House of LordB, Lord Fisher's 

speech in, November, ISIS, 86 ; 

March 21. 1917, 87 
How the Great Vfat was carried 

on, 64 et »eq. 
Howe, Julia Ward. 77 
Hunger and thirst the way to 

Heaven, 10 
Huxley, T. H., 42 
Hythe School of Husketry, the. 

Incarnation of Revolution, Lord 

Fisher as the, 20 
Inos, Dean, 28, 47, 48 
Irwaod undw military taw, 31 

u. Sir Henry, 128 

Jelliaoe, Visoount, 128, 214, 21S, 

223, 220, 842, 243, 247, 267 

KeUe, John, 10 

Kelvin. Lord. 21, 01, 02, 03 

Kerr, Lord Walter. 265 

Kiel Canal, 214, 236, 237, 240 

King Edward, 4, 84; obarao- 
teristio tiioi^iitfulneas of, 85- 
27; his friendship forSirHsn^ 
Campbell -Bannerman, 32; 57, 
60, ISO, 287, 260, 868 

King William IV, ] 

Kitcbniar, Lord, 54, 220, 243, 

Knoltys, Lord. 24 

Knox, Sir Ralph, K 

Krupp, 196. 107, 100 

Labouchere, Vb. Heory, 81. 32 
Lambe, A., grandfathiw of Lotd 

Fisher, 861 
Lambe, Sophia, mothw of Lord 

Fisher. 261 
Lone, Jane, 2 
Latimer, Bishop, 211 
Laurier, Sir WUfrid, 78 
Law, Rt. Hon. Bonar, 244 
League of Nations oonsensi 
Lectures to ofBcers of the I 

" I^t 'em all come," 81 
Lethbridge, Captain, 11 
Leverrier, XTrbain, 21 
Lloyd George, Bt. Hon., 77 ; leUer 

from Lord Fisher to, 222-883 ; 

Lloyd's, 125 

Lochee, Lord, Me Bobertaon. Hi- 


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"Loop D«t«oti«i" KbeoM, tho, Horiay, 
S7 atone,' ou 

Loid Hoyor'a BMtquet 1907, tbe, Motto, ft Fidiar, t 
Lord Fiahar'a nieeah at, 8S 

Locebnm, Lord, 31 

Looy. Sir Hmuy, 38. 37 

"life of OlMl- 

ITCUntook, Admiral Sir Loopold, 

HoCra*. Admiral, S9 
HoKoohnio, Sir JemM, 189 
HoKeniu, Rt. Hon. Begiiuld, 

HcTjftii^tUii, A. C, ProfeMor of 

HictcoT at Chicago, 09, 73, 

Haddeo. Admiral, 138 
lUbao, Cwt. A. T., 90, 91 : m 

Ndson, (36 
Harianbad, 29, 80, 32, 84. 38 
Harlborousli, Duke of, 74 
UoMertOD-Sinith, Sir J. E., 34 
Hemorandum on " Oil ud ita 

Fighting Attribut«a," 200 
Hen, training of, for the Navv, 


Ueroaotile Marine, the, 126 
HidletOD, Lcffd, aee Brodriok, 


and the Admiral. 

,. O. Oardiner'a atory 

of, 11, 12 
Midflhipnsen^fl food, 6 
Uidah^imeQ past 

ocMapariaoD betwe ... 
UiUer, Cwtain, 11 
Hit«heU, Dr. Weir, i« 
Mooa, 246 
" Hooatroua " cruisara, the, 180, 


N^eon, 74, 129; FHedlaad- 
Brian rmmpniga, 921 ; SSI 


Narseo, Uaod of, 8 

National Lifeboat IbistitatlMi aa 
■ubatitate for OoaatgnBKl, 128 

Naval baae reforma, M9 al mo. 

Naval eandidate'a eaaav, a, vll- 

Naval e^>tain and oavalry oolonal. 

Naval education, 166 tt taq. 
Naval oBtoer, a, on the battle of 

Heligoland Bight, 230 
Navigation, ignorance of, in the 

Navy, 19 
Navy, oommon ontey into, 166 

Navy in ths war, the, 226 et 

Nelao'n, 1, 6, 19, 81, 88, 189. 
831, 232 ; Cnt. A. T. Hahaa 
on, 136 ; at l^ulon. 136 

Northbrook, liord, SO 

Nooleua crewa, 147 

Hcneeby, Admiral J., 848 
Morley, Bt. Hon. Jcdm, on 
tbn Navy, 1893. 136 

Obawvatoriee, 124 el Mg. 
Obaolete venela, purgiog tba 

Navy of, 139 «t tea. 
OflBoen, traitdiutof, for the Navy. 

160; Lord Cbariea Benaford 

on, 167-170 
Oil and oil wngiw, 189 et taq. 
Oil-bunuDg battleahipa, lb. Joae- 

phua Duiida' repral cm, 80S 
Organiaation for war, 138 

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Oaboma nitoni of Kaval eduoa- 

Uon, 7, 107, 248 
" Out of date " flgbttpg ■hips, 

Pagsolni, 164 

PM«-Roberta, Dr., Dean of Salu- 

biuy. 49 
Fakenhom, Admiral, 110, 208 
Parker, Admiral Sir William, 

lavt of Nelson'n captains, nomi- 

natoa Lord FiBbor for the 

Navy, 4, 261 
Parkes, Mr. Oscar, 20S 
FarsoDB, Hon. Sir Charles, 06, 

Peace. 74, 7S 
Pechih. Gulf of, 16 
Penniless, friendless and forlorn, 

Lord FLsber'a entry into the 

Navy, 10 
Plumer, Goncral, 173 
Pope, tho, and Tyndale. 43, 44 
Pre-war prophecy, a, 227 
Public BpeecDes, 79 et ttq. 

Redmond, William, 81 
Redundant dookyard mrimtao* 

dischMge of, 06, 67 
Resentmnitt 46 
Retrospect, • (July, 1900), IBO 

el f M. 
Beval, 360 
Rhodes, Ceei], 28 
Biohards, Sir Frederiok, 50, SI j 

oabmoo's retort to, 0S; SM 
Ridley, Biahop, 211 
Riga, 236 
Ripon, Lord, 03 
Roberts, Lord, 36 
Robertson, Mr. Bdmnnd, 98, 

lOI n. 
Robertson, Rev. P. W., of 

Brighton, 46, 47, 49 
Robertson, Sir W., 247 
Bomb u low- Pen ne, Lieut., 159 
Royal Academy Banquet, 190S, 

the. Lord liisber's speeoh tX, 

Royal Dutob-Sball Combination, 

the, 201 
Royal Marines, L(xd Cbutos 

Uoreeford on the, 16S-169 
Roxbdestvensky, Admiral, 207 
Rumbold, Sir U. G. M. (AmlMW- 

wdor at Vienna), 31, 33 
BuamU, T^rd, 31, 33, 33 
BuRsian catastrophe, tha rSMOli 

of the, 228 
Russian War, the, 1854-0, 8 

Queen Alexandra, her kindly dis- 
position, 26 ; 28, 29, 268 
Queen Elizabeth, 135 
Queeo Elizabeth of Bohemia, 34 
Queeo Victoria, 30, 06 

Rambodde, Ceylon, Lord Fisher's 

birthplace, 206 
Redeadale, Lord, 36, 36 
Redmond, John, 31 

Saintly Naval cutain, a, Il> 

13, 14 
Salisbury, Lord, 64, 65, 88 
Salt-beel ^unS-box, a, 10 
Samuel, Sir Marcus, 198 
Sanke^, Blr., 77 
Satanic captain, a, 15 
Scapa Flow, 226-226, 248 
Schwab, Mr.. 187 
Sohwanhofi, General Qnm voo, 

Science, contempt for, in tha 

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Soott, Admiral Penr, 80, 81, 

Soft of Japan, b«tU« of. 111 
Sus-gull, a delicacy, 16 
BeoK>o7 and 

Seven Yean' War, tb 

21 S, 222 
Sbsdwell, Captain. IS, IS, 14, 

ShadweU, Sir Lancelot, last 

Vtce-Chancallor of England, 12 
Shond, Lord, 31, 33 
Bbipbtiilding and dockyard 

workers, Q8 ef Mq. 
Sieoel, Admiral voo, SS 
" Sleep quiet in your beda." 

speech at Lord Blayor's banquet, 

1907, 8S 
Smith. Rt. Hon. W. H., M 
" Snail and Tortoise Party." the, 

Snufi-box of Bait beef, 10 
Some prediodoos, 211 
" Sow the North Sea with minei," 

T»rd Fisher's advice in 1914, 

Spee, Admiral von. 66, 206, 

232, 233, 260 
Spencer, Earl, 60, 61, S2, 264 
Spencer, Herbert, 42 
Staal, U. de. 85 
Standard Oil Trust, America, 

State education in the Navy, 

8t«ad, Hr. W. T., 62, 6S. S6 ; 

oa Lord fisher's great naval 

reforms, 263 «( «eg. ; 263 
Stewart, Hr., " Jolly and Hustle," 


Submarlno, BriUdi, befoca aod 

during the war, 186 
Subaidituy eervicea of war, 148 

Swan, Hr., inventor of tiw inoao- 

descent li^t, 21 
Sydenham, Lord, «h CUAa, Sir 

Sylt. 2^' 

Taylor, Bishop Jeretny, 4ft 
Tennyson -d'Aj^oourt, Sir Eua< 

taoe, 208 
TepI, monks' colony at, 29 
Thackeray, 79 
" The World, the Flesh, and the 

Devil," 33 
Thomson, Sir J. J., O.H., 60 
Thuriow, Hajor, 1 
ThmsSeld, Hr. J. B., 160 
Tirpibc, Admiral von, 226, 247 
Titlee. hweditary, and Canada, 

Training of boys for Uie Navjr, 

IVaining of men for the Navy, 

166: t^ord Chariea Beresford 

on the, 167-170 
Training of ofBoen for the Navy, 

166, 167-169 
Tsar of RuMla, 268 
Tweedmouth, Lord, 98, 101 n. 
Twiss, General, S9 
Two-Power standard, the^ 18. 

Tyiulale, John. 42. 4S, 44 

Submarine boat, the, 82 
Submarine and oommeroe^ the, 

Submarines, 173 et Mq. 
Submarines and ofl fad. 179-181 


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V WdUngton, Lord, 74 

Woaley, John, 46 
Vrnnmma, Hr. Joaifth. SOS Whatelj, Archbiahop, 89, 100 

Vndun, 6 ; Anmican advance Whitohuroh, Edward, printar of 

on. 246 th« 1539 Bible, 38 

" Victory," the. Lord Fisbar'a Whitehead bnpedo, 177, S6S 

first and last ahip, 4, S Wilami, Sir Arthur, 268 

Villeoeuve, Admiral, S9 Wilson. President, 77 

Vladivostok, 110, HI Winchester, Biabap of, 114 

Wirelem Telegraphy, 81 
Wotton, Sir Heory, 34 
W Wydil, John, 42, 48 

Warsaw, Napolecm at, 136 Y 

Watoh, a historic, 3 

Watson, Sir William, 78 Yamamoto, Admiral, 22fl 

Way to Victory, the. Lord Fisher's Yates, Edmund, 31, 33 

letters to the Prime Uinister, Youthful midshipmrai, advantage 

234-236 of, S, 7 ; arduous Uvea o^ 6 

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